Volume 14 13, No.2 - Summer 1967
Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas
ISSN 0024-5089
Copyright © 1967 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.


University of Pennsylvania

The vocabulary, in its broad sense, is the entire number of words of a language, the sum total of words of a language (German Wortschatz, English vocabulary). Speaking more narrowly one may talk about children's, students', soldiers', or even thieves' vocabulary; one may talk also about the vocabulary of a particular epoch or of a particular author (e. g. Donelaitis), or about poetic or dialectical vocabulary. Linguistics uses here the special term lexicon (French Iexique, Italian lessico, Russian leksika).

The more numerous and varied is the vocabulary, the richer, more expressive and easier to use is the language. The vocabulary of a language changes constantly with the life of the speakers. Words denoting obsolete concepts or things are forgotten and new words (neologisms) are created for new concepts and things or words are borrowed from other languages. The more lively and varied is the cultural life of a people, the faster its vocabulary is enriched and changed. Political upheavals, particularly those connected with profound changes in the social life are reflected in the development of the vocabulary. For example, the French revolution left traces in the French language. And connected with the October revolution and the introduction of the Soviet regime are significant changes in the Russian language and even today most of the words of Militant Communism have remained, e. g. the abstract meanings of avangard 'avant-garde' and ataka 'attack'. The Russian phrase avangardnaja rol' kommunistov is translated into English as 'the leading role of the Communists' just as in Lithuanian a faithful translation would be 'vadovaujamasis komunistų vaidmuo'. Compare also the phrase of Lithuanian communist literature: komunistų partija yra darbininkų ir valstiečių klasės avangardas "the Communist party is the avant-garde of the workers' and peasants' class", translated word for word from Russian.

The Sovietization of Lithuania and the privileged role of Russian in public life has found its expression in the Lithuanian language not only in the flood of special Soviet terms, but also in innovations in usage and word formation.

Particularly in the spoken language as a result of administrative and industrial bilingualism more and more acronyms are being used, i. e. compound contracted words. For example in the Russian-Lithuanian dictionary of abbreviations published by Feigelson, in addition to the acronyms listed in the Dictionary of Contemporary Lithuanian (1954), we find the apparently commonly used partorgas 'party organizer', partkomas 'party committee', partkabinetas 'party office; local party headquarters', 'partorganizacija' party organization', partsusirinkimas 'party meeting' (the two latter are given only as examples of word formation) and six neologisms are added partaktyvas 'cadres of the party', partarchyvas 'party archives', partbilietas 'party card', partbiuras 'party office', partmokykla 'party school', partšvietimas 'party education'. In the language of the party members on analogy with the Russian 'partden' 'party day' and partjačejka 'party cell' we will soon find partdiena for partijos diena and partkuopelė for partijos kuopelė. From Russian spec (abbreviation for specialist) the Lithuanian counterpart specas has bred at least thirteen translated abbreviations such as specseminaras 'special seminar', specskyrius 'special division', specdrabužiai 'special clothes' (in the 1954 dictionary), specavalyne 'special foot-wear', speckursas 'special course', specparuošimas 'special preparation', specvaldyba 'special administration'. But one can be sure that now instead of the official word specialusis korespondentas 'special correspondent' the newspapermen when they talk among themselves use the word speckoras, as the Russian speckor is found in normative dictionaries of the standard language. The word gailestingoji sesuo 'nurse' has now been replaced in Lithuania by medicinos sesuo (in the 1954 dictionary) and medsesuo (cf. Russian medicinskaja sestra, medsestra). The Russians recently have begun to call the man who fills the same function a medbrat 'male nurse' (literally 'medical brother'). We can expect the introduction of medbrolis into Lithuanian. A. Lyberis and K. Ulvydas (1958) affirm that now these abbreviations are less used in the literary language. But, of course, the situation is quite different in the everyday spoken language. With the collectivization of the farm land in 1948 in place of the formerly used word of the Lithuanian press, the purely Russian kolchozas (cf. in folk language kolkdzas, kalkozas) there was introduced the official, supposedly 'creative' word kolūkis 'colective farm' derived from kolektyvinis ūkis) already given in the 1948 dictionary by Sereiskis. The Lithuanian Academy Grammar (1965, p. 251) even gives certain rules for the accentuation of such abbreviations. But, using Soviet terminology the prikazčik 'steward' in the living language still cannot avoid uklons 'deviations' and peregibs 'twists'. Compare the word kolukė (from Gegužinė) defined in the Academy Dictionary as pasalūkas, - 'treacherous person' and the pronunciation kòlūkis found in the speech of some recent arrivals from Lithuania.

In letters from Lithuania probably with tongue in cheek the forms kalūkis and kuolūkis (which would appear to be derived from kalė 'bitch' and kuolas 'stake' respectively). Since the Russians use the word kollektiv for kolchoz in the abstract sense, the Lithuanian word kolektyvas has now appeared in belles-lettres (Baltušis, Mieželaitis, Tilvytis). A kolchoz farmer (formerly kolchozninkas in Lithuanian) is now called a kolūkietis. From the point of view of word formation this name is at least somewhat better than the word kolvalstietis which appeared first in the periodical literature. The reality of contemporary Lithuanian life is so powerful that finally even linguists begin to explain that 'such abbreviations are clear, accurate, convenient and meaningful. .. that to pronounce or to write them one does not need to waste much time.' And one must agree that they 'are suitable to express certain concepts', only, of course for the concepts brought in by the Russian communism.

The Russian language is rich in prefixed and compound words with de- 'up to, as far as', obšče- and so-'common', sverx- 'above, overly', vse- 'all, mnogo- 'many, much', melko- 'small, fine'. The Lithuanian press and other writings are saturated with such loan-translations as ikiburžuazinis 'pre-bourgeois', ikikapitalistinis 'pre-capitalistic', ikiklasinis 'before the creation of classes', ikimarksinis 'pre-Marxian', ikimonopolistinis 'pre-monopolistic', ikirevoliucinis (in the 1954 dictionary) 'pre-revolutionary', ikisantuokinis 'maiden, pre-conjugal' (name), ikisuvažiaviminis 'pre-meeting' (party discussion in the translation of Lenin's works), ikišaukiamasis, ikišaukiaminis and ikišaukiamininkas (Russ. doprizyvnyj 'pre-conscription', dopryzyvnik 'person undergoing pre-conscription military training'), ikitardyminis 'pre-examination' (time), ikitarybinis 'pre-Soviet' (literature), bendraatsakovis (Russian sootvetčik 'corespondent'), bendraautoris (Russian soavtor 'co-author'), bendranacionalinis and bendratautinis (language even in linguistics' writings) (Russian obščenacional'nyj and obščenarodnyj 'general, public'). Bendrakariuominis 'common military', bendraliaudinis 'common, public', bendrarusiškas' all Russian', bendrasąjunginis Russ. obščesojuznyj 'all union') bendražmonijinis (Russian obščečelovečeskij 'common human') culture, viršnormis, viršnorminis (Russian sverxurocnyj 'overtime, over the norm') work, viršpelnis (Russian sverxpribyl' excess profit'), viršsąmatinis 'superfiscal' virštermininis 'superterminal'; visaliaudinis (Russian vsenarodnyj 'of all the people, public') holiday, visapasaulinis (Russian vsemirnyj 'universal') organization, visarusijinis 'all Russian' newspaper, visasąjunginis 'all union' academy of sciences, visatautinis 'common to all people' struggle, visaapimantis and visaaprėpiantis (Russian vsexvatyvajusčij, vseobjemljuščij 'all encompassing, all inclusive'), visanugalintis (Russian vsepobeždajuščij 'all conquering') daugianacionalinis (Russian mnogonacional'nyj 'multinational') state, daugiatiražis laikraštis (Russian mnogotiražka 'widely circulated publication'), daugiastakIininkas 'a person taking care of several lathes'), daugiašeimis (Russian mnogosemejnyj 'having a large family), smulkiaburžuazinis (Russian melkoburžuaznyj from German kleinbuergerlich 'petty bourgeois', smulkiavalstietiškas 'small farmer', smulkiasavininkiškas 'small owner', smulkiadidmeninis 'small wholesale' trading basis, smulkiadvarė bajorija (Russian melkopomestnoje dvorjanstvo 'small landowning nobility').

Except for the adverbially derived adjectives ik(i)šiolinis, ligšiolinis 'up to the present' and the ecclesiastical loan translation (from the Polish doczesnyj) ikilaikinas, liglaikinis, liglaikiškas, laikinas 'hitherto existing, up to this time' in the Lithuanian language there were no other words with iki. In the standard language up to now we were accustomed to saying prieškarinis 'pre-war' (life), priešmirtinis 'before death', priešmokyklinis 'pre-school' (age), priešrinkiminis 'pre-election' (agitation), prieššventinis 'pre-holiday' (sale), priešpietinis 'before dinner' (train). Already Lalis' dictionary (1910) beside the noun prieštvanis 'time before the flood' and priešvelykis 'time before Easter' recognizes the adjectives prieštvaninis 'antediluvian' and priešvelykinis 'pre-Easter'. But now there have been forced into the language ikikarinis 'pre-war', ikišventinis 'pre-holiday', ikimokyklinis 'pre-school' from which in order to translate Russian doškolnik there was even created an ikimokyklinukas 'pre-school child' and an ikimokyklininkas 'a pre-school teacher'. In Russian the meaning of the following prefixes is distinguished: do- 'before, up to, as far as', protivo- 'against, opposite', anti- 'anti', pred- 'before' and such distinctions are now being foisted off on Lithuanian. Therefore in place of the customary expression ankstyvasis priešmokyklinis amžius 'early pre-school age' we now find ikipriešmokyklinis on the basis of Russian dopredšokol'nyj 'before pre-school'. But the clumsy bendrasąjunginis, bendratautinis, bendraliaudinis are not semantically distinct from sąjunginis 'union', tautinis 'national', liaudinis 'folk, people' (e.g. meeting, affair). In Lithuanian we say bendroji žmonijos kultūra 'the common culture of humanity' therefore the aforementioned lengthy neologism is not necessary. Neither is the word bendrakariuomeninis (Russian obščevojskovoj 'common to all troops') necessary, because in case of need one can say bendras visoms kariuomenės rūšims 'common to all branches of the armed forces.' Similarly one could make from Russian such words as bendramiestinis 'common to the city', bendravalsty-binis 'common to the government', bendrapolitinis 'common political'. But the Russian obščeobrazovatel'naja škola is further translated by the old common term bendrojo lavinimo mokykla 'school of common education'. J. Jablonskis had almost extirpated the term viršvalandžiai 'overtime work' from the Lithuanian language, replacing it with the Lithuanian construction antvalandžiai. But these, unable to break off from the Russian sverxurocnye now indicate the word viršvalandžiai. Now the attempt is being made to limit the prefix ant- to those cases where Russian uses nad- (Cf. antstatas - Russian nadstrojka 'superstructure') and the prefix virš- translates Russian sverx-. Therefore in the dictionary for antnormis we find a reference to viršnormis 'beyond the norm'. But somehow antžmogis 'superman' and antgamtinis 'supernatural' have remained and have not been turned into the words viršžmogis, viršgamtinis which had previously been banished from the language by Jablonskis. And visapasaulinis again means nothing more than pasaulinis 'world'. And at the same time they have begun to write visaapimantis 'all inclusive' etc., because the Russians write it so.

The Russian language has inherited from the Church Slavic (and this latter on the model of Byzantine Greek) a disposition for compound words. And after the revolution, in part because of the influence of the German Marxists, these increased (Cf., e. g. tovaroupotrebimost' German Warenverbrauch 'consumption of goods'.) But imposed upon the Lithuanian language were such monstrosities as smulkiasavininkiškas 'small owner', privačiasavininkiškas 'private owner', privačiakapitalistinis 'private capital' (Ch. Lemchenas' Russian-Lithuanian Dictionary 1955). Russian častnosobstvenničeskij, častnovladel'českij 'private owner' are words of the inflated party style and in meaning are not differentiated from častnyj 'private'. According to the laws of the Russian language, from the attributive combination častnyj sobstvennik, vladelec 'private owner' are formed the compound adjectives (cf. železnaja doroga 'railroad': železnodorožnyj 'railroad' (adj.)). But in the Lithuanian language form privatus or privatinis savininkas 'owner' one can form only a genitive phrase privačių or privatinis savininkas 'owner' one can form only a genitive phrase privačių or privatinių savininkų 'of private owners' but never the forms privačiasavininkiškas or privačiasavininkinis.

During the Sovietization of Lithuania while industry was being spread and production specialized, there were created many new and necessary terms. Especially many derivatives were formed with productive suffixes, e. g. kojininkas 'worker in a stocking factory', pasienininkas 'frontier-guard', pavieiininkas (Russian edinoličnik) 'uncollectivized farmer or craftsman', upininkystė 'river affairs' (cf. jūrininkystė 'naval affairs'), ėrininkystė 'lamb-breeding' (cf. avininkystė 'sheep-breeding'), prisiskaitėlis (cf. Russian načetčik 'well-read but uncritically minded person'), prisiskaiteliškumas 'quality of being well-read but uncritically minded', partietis 'Communist party member', žalgirietis 'member of a collective farm (or factory) Žalgiris', pergalietis, inkarietis (names of members of sports clubs, members of kolchoz's, workers at a particular factory), metalingas 'having lots of metal', kryptingas (Russian celenapravlennyj 'having a clear and obvious goal'), kryptingumas 'quality of having a direction' (of a novel, poetry), klausovas (Russian sluxac 'soldier whose duty it is to listen to enemy reports, conversations'), skaitovas 'a person who reads something publicly, a reader at a theatrical rehearsal' (because of the difference in Russian between čitčik and čitatel' 'a reader in general'). Lithuanian has now also quite a number of new prefixed words such as apdaila (Russian otdelka 'trimming, finishing'), atžyma (Russian otmetka 'mark, note'), įrenginys (Russian sooruženie 'building, construction), išmilžis (Russian udoj 'quantity of milk obtained', nuoskaita (Russian načet (deficit, poplūdis (pavodok 'inundation'), priešgaris (Russian kontrpar 'steam released into the cylinder of a steam engine against the moving pistons in order to stop the movement of the piston and thereby stop the machine'), priešlapis (Russian forzac 'flyleaf'), užkaitas (Russian fal'c 'rabbet, groove').

Most of these new industrial, agricultural and scientific terms are created intelligently and according to the laws of word formation of the Lithuanian language.

On the model of Russian, neologisms, for the most part loan translations are formed by means of hybridization, e. g. uodegizmas 'following after, a certain opportunism' (Russian xvostizm), uodegistas, uodegininkas 'follower, opportunist', antiliaudinis and priešliaudinis 'anti-people', energotraukinys (Russian energopojezd 'mobile electric station on railroad platforms or railroad cars'), kontraveržlė and antveržlė (Russian kontrgajka 'jam-nut'), infragarsas 'infra-sound', šviesoforas (Russian svetofor 'trafic signal'), aerouostas and aeroportas (Russian aeroport 'airport on an airline'), aerošvyturys 'aircraft' beacon light', ' / kontr(a)smugis 'counter-attack'. In place of the last three it would be better to have oro uostas, oro švyturys, priešsmūgis or atosmūgis. Compare still superkietas 'super-hard', superdangoraižis. The Russians call only American skyscrapers neboskreb, but their own they call vysotnoe zdanie, vysotnyj dom 'tall building' (the noun vysota means 'height'). Therefore for Lithuanian was created aukštybinis namas. In Lemchen's dictionary the word didžiaukštis namas is also given, but it did not become adapted because it is not a literal loan-translation from the Russian name. If indeed a new term was really needed it would have been much easier to say aukštinis namas (cf. aklinė siena, gatvė 'wall without windows; dead-end street').

Words are given new meanings. For example a knygnešys (originally a 'book-smuggler in Czarist times') now carries about and tries to sell propagandists literature (Russian knigonoša) and rodiklis 'exponent; direction indicator' is now used in such sentences as: gamybos, darbo rodikliai 'production, work indicators, indices', įvykdyti planą pagal visus rodiklius 'to fulfill the plan according to all indicators', kultūrinio augimo rodikliai (Russian pokazateli kul'turnogo rosta 'indicators of cultural growth'). On the model of Russian the verbs užaštrinti 'to sharpen', nusmailinti 'to cut to a point' (a stick), nudrožti 'to sharpen' (a pencil) have begun to be used also in an abstract sense 'to emphasize, to underline, to point out the significance of', e. g. užaštrinti klausimą (Russian zaostrit' vopros 'to sharpen a question, to emphasize the importance of a question'), prieštaravimus 'opposition, contradictions', vaizdą 'an image' (in a literary work), politinis užaštrinimas 'political acuteness'. It is not unlikely that someone in place of atkreipti, sukelti dėmesį 'to fix one's attention on' will start to say užaštrinti dėmesį (Russian zaostrit' vnimanie 'to stimulate an interest in'). The phrases įtvirtinti žinias 'to reinforce news', laimėjimus 'victories', pasiekimus (Russian dostiženija 'achievements'), drausmę 'discipline' pamokos įtvirtinimas 'reinforcement of a lesson' can only be understood with the help of Russian. Up to now, if the need arose, we used to say sustiprinti žinias, laimėjimus, drausmę, išmokyti pamoką 'to learn a lesson well', pamokos išmokymas 'reinforcement of a lesson'. The Russian verbs zakrepit' and ukrepit' are both used with the abstract meaning of 'strenghten, to make firm'. But since the military terms įtvirtinti 'to reinforce', įsitvirtinti 'to be reinforced', įtvirtinimai 'reinforcements' are translated by Russian ukrepit', ukrepit'sja and ukreplenie, the Lithuanian forms are remade on this model. In Lithuanian now people are saying and writing įsisavinti pamoką 'to assimilate a lesson', žinias 'news', įprotį 'a custom', techniką 'technology', naujus metodus 'new methods', maistą 'food' (about an organism). The basic idea behind these expressions is: 'to learn well', 'to retain', 'to overlearn' (a lesson), 'to provide oneself with, to get' (news, a custom, etc.), 'to rework', 'to use', 'to take in' (food). In the latter case in biology and medicine a special term is used, viz. asimiliuoti 'to assimilate'. This is confirmed by the first meaning given for asimiliacija 'assimilation' in the 1954 dictionary: a process whereby the animal or plant organism reworks the ingested food.

The key to everything, of course, is the Russian word usvoit' (svoj 'one's own') which is used in the other meanings. In the dictionary they even mention 'the assimilation of arable land'. In Lithuanian one can really only talk about living on or cultivating arable land. The ecclesiastical words šlovė 'glory', šlovingas 'glorious' which resemble Russian slava, slavnyj have begun to be used in such phrases as šlovė tarybiniams didvyriams 'glory to Soviet heroes', šlovė Stalinui 'glory to Stalin', šlovingoji komunistų partija, tarybinė armija 'the glorious Communist party, the Soviet army'. Although šventas 'sacred, holy' according to the Communist ideology is a term of religious superstition, nevertheless, since Russians say svjatoe delo 'sacred cause' it is translated into Lithuanian as šventas reikalas. Likewise the phrase šventa pareiga 'sacred obligation' has been left (Russian svjataja ob'jazennost'). But otherwise this adjective is avoided. Thus the names of the churches are written Peter and Paul's, John's, Anne's, Theresa's church, likewise the epistles of the apostles: the epistle of Paul the apostle to the Romans, the epistles of the apostle Peter. And in place of Holy Writings they now only use the word Bible. Daukantas' word kariauna 'military forces, troops' is now used as a pejorative term like Russian vojenščina 'fighters, military clique', e. g. fašistinė kariauna 'fascist military clique', Amerikos kariaunos žvėriškumai 'the brutalities of the American military clique'. Russian peredovoj 'forward' is also used with the abstract meaning 'progressive, first, leading'. Therefore the Lithuanian language has had imposed upon it the following expressions: priešakinis mokslas 'advanced science', mokytojas 'teacher', mokslininkas 'scholar', priešakiniai darbininkai 'foremost workers' (people understanding the best), priešakinė žmonija 'foremost people', technika, prišakinės idėjos 'leading ideas', šalys 'countries', even a priešakinė moteris 'foremost woman'. Evidently it was felt that in Lithuanian it is not right to say it that way, therefore a few people have started to use priešakingas. But in Lithuanian this mans only 'with a large protruding forepart'. Apparently pažangūs is to be reserved only for Russian progressivnyj 'progressive'. In place of the phrases aprūpinti darbu 'to supply with work', duoti, parūpinti darbą 'to give a job' and gauti darbą 'to get a job', apsirūpinti darbu 'to provide oneself with a job' in Lithuanian now the following neologisms are gaining wide currency: įdarbinti 'to supply with work' and įsidarbinti 'to get a job' (in volume II of the big dictionary published in 1947 we do not find these words, but they have already been put into the Sereiskis dictionary of 1948), įdarbinimas 'supplying with a job' (cf. darbininkų įdarbinimo indeksas 'workers' employment index). The basis for these strangers is to be found in the Russian chancellory terms trudoustroit' 'to give work to somebody', trudoustrojstvo 'giving somebody work, finding somebody a job' (concerning the correctness of this word even the Russian linguists dispute among themselves). Usually Russians say here ustroit' na rabotu 'find somebody a job', but also ustroit' v bol'nicu, v školu 'to put into a hospital, a school', ustroit' bilet 'to procure a ticket', ustroit' delo 'to settle an affair'. But it is not likely to come into anybody's head to let loose the following clever innovations: įligonininti or įligoninti 'to hospitalize' (cf. vargoninkas from vargonininkas 'organist'), įmokyklinti 'to supply with a school', įbilietinti 'to supply with a ticket', įreikalinti 'to settle an affair'. Of course someone might invent a neologism with the opposite meaning, išdarbinti 'to release from work, to dejob'. But we probably shouldn't expect it, because the Russians don't say trudouvolit' 'id.'. The form known in dialects įdarbis 'starting to work' cannot justify įdarbinti, because it is formed from the noun darbas or rather from the verb įdirbti 'to be able to work' (with ablaut). In the Soviet Lithuanian press the following phrases are widespread: socializmo, komunizmo statyba 'socialist, communist construction', kultūrinė statyba 'cultural construction' (where the word statyba should be replaced by pastatymas), statyti komunizmą, naują gyvenimą 'to build Communism, a new life'. In Lithuanian one can only say kurti naują gyevnimą, naują Lietuvą 'to create a new life, a new Lithuania' (A. Venclova and K. Korsakas still use this latter word kurti), and, if you will, 'socialism and Communism'. The expression kultūrinė kūryba 'cultural creation' has been customary for a long time. They have started to use the new construction under the influence of Russian (stroit' kommunizm 'to build Communism', kul'turnoe stroitel'stvo. 'cultural construction'). The 1954 dictionary does not consider it necessary to list the verb with that meaning and only socializmo statyba 'the construction of socialism' is mentioned. We can perhaps only explain this Russianism by the fact that since they started to use the noun kūryba for the translation of Russian tvorčestvo 'creation of literary or artistic value', they began to avoid using it in Lithuanian in its common wider sense. It is unfortunate that the otherwise good Lithuanian-Russian dictionary of A. Lyberis (1962) also gives for kūryba a translation tvorčestvo with the example liaudies kūryba 'people's or folk creation'. A Common Russianism of the press is the verb išstoti (as well as the nominal derivative išstojimas) in the meaning 'to declare oneself against something or in favor of something'. Although such usage is condemned by linguists, the mighty have decided it is acceptable.

The Soviet press, especially in party and propagandists publications, is rich in various pejorative, condemnatory and scolding terms. Of course these have been transferred into Lithuanian as loan translations. For example, bažnytininkas 'ecclesiastic', kulto tarnas (Russian služitel' kul'ta 'servant of the cult'), i. e. a pejorative term for 'clergyman', brokadarys (Russian brakodel 'unconscientious workman who breaks goods being produced') nuolaidžiauti (Russian popustitel'stvovat' 'to tolerate'), pravaikšta (Russian progul 'shirking, truancy'), pravaikštininkas 'shirker, truant', tamsybininkas (Russian mrakobes 'obscurantist'), trupingraužys (Russian kroxobor 'niggard'), trupingraužystė 'harmful punctiliousness' užsieniava (Russian inostranščina 'everything foreign styles, customs, habits'), atomininkai (Russian word atomščik 'exponent of the use of the atom bomb', but this latter term is directed only at the British and Americans), diplomatinė gešeftmacherystė (Russian gešeftmaxerstvo from German geschaeftmacherei 'business dealings'), degolininkas 'a follower of De Gaulle' neofašistas 'neofascist', neohitlerininkas 'neo-Hitlerite', sociališdavikas (Russian socialpredatel' 'traitor to the cause of socialism'), pogromininkas 'person who takes part in a pogrom', vokiškieji grobikai 'German plunderers', amerikiniai angliškieji karo kurstytojai 'American English war mongers'. With the introduction of collective farms the term buožė 'exploiter, especially landlord', has become wide-spread. The term had already been used in the press by Communists to translate the Russian kulak 'rich farmer' and occasionally it had appeared in belles-lettres too (A. Vienuolis). This term was apparently invented by a man who knew from a dialect the borrowing kulokas, used with the meaning of buožė 'stick, cudgel, thick piece of wood'. There have even been formed a whole series of derivatives such as buožija 'village bourgeoisie, rich peasants who exploit others', buožynė 'a nest of richer farmers', buožgalis 'part of the village inhabited by the bourgeoisie', buožduktė 'daughter of a bourgeois person', buožėnas 'a son of a richer farmer', buožvaikis 'child of a bourgeois person', buožiukas 'a young son of a richer farmer', buožiokas '(slightly derogatory): a young son of a richer farmer', buožienė 'wife of a bourgeois person', buoželė 'mall bourgeois', pusbuožė 'almost a rich farmer', išbuožinti, nubuožinti 'to dis-bourgoisie, i. e. to take away the property and land of a larger land owner' (cf. Russian raskulačit' 'id.'), buožiauti 'to be village bourgeois', išbuožėti 'to become village bourgeois'.

In the use of foreign words the Russians are faithfully copied. For example, the elected members of various councils are called deputatai 'deputies', the word is used by the Russians who borrowed this livelier sounding appelation from the terminology of the French revolution. In place of pilnatis, more commonly pilnaties posėdis 'plenary session' on the Russian model they use plenumas 'plenum' plenarinis, plenumo posėdis 'plenary session'. Compare also the English words which have come through Russian, e. g. komfortas 'comfort', komfortabilus 'comfortable', trolebiisas 'trolley bus', buldozeris 'bulldozer', skreperis 'scraper', eskalatorius 'escalator', even limitas (with the Russian stress on the second syllable, not the first as in English) 'the norm, or limit of a prices, wares, credit, imports' with the derivatives limitinis 'limit (adjective)', limituoti 'to limit', viršlimitinis (cf. Russian sverxlimitnyj 'over-limit' adjective ). In the Russian periodical press the word eskalacija has appeared, but not in the sense of 'military escalation', but in the sense of American agression will undoubtedly come into the Lithuanian newspapers. From the Soviet bureaucratic terminology has been taken over the word mikrorajonas 'microregion, i. e. the smallest administrative unit, a school district from which the children must go to the same school'.

Although in the 1954 dictionary are included the linguistic terms tarmybė 'dialectism', lenkybė 'Polonism', rusybė 'Russianism', vokietybė 'Germanism', in practice more and more the terms dialektizmas, polonizmas, rusicizmas, germanizmas are being used. Simply because the Russians cannot say it another way. Compare further the terms vietiniai, teritoriniai, klasiniai dialektai 'local, territorial and class dialects' (from the so-called linguistic works of Stalin). A television set is called televizorius (Russian televizor). There are thus differences in the use of international words, cf. ministerijos, teisėjų kolegija 'a board of judges, of a ministry', redakcinė kolegija 'editorial board' (and redkologija), visuotinė mokinių konferencija 'general meeting of the students', kiaulininkių, melžėjų seminaras 'swineherds', milkers' seminar'.

From the point of view of vocabulary there are no completely pure languages which do not have foreign borrowings obtained from cultural exchanges or even by way of the mixture of linguistic communities. For example, the vocabulary of contemporary Albanian is very mixed because in it are crossed old Illyrian, Romance, Slavic and finally Turkish elements. English is considered a Germanic language, but half of its vocabulary is of Romance origin. The Normans of William the Conqueror were already speaking Old French. In the Russian literary language also there are infinitely many Church Slavic elements. Only these are not immediately evident, because one Slavic language has borrowed from another, (see B. Unbegaun, L'héritage cyrillo-méthodien en Russie in the publication Cyrillo-Methodiana published by M. Hellmann, 1964). Some modern languages accept borrowings rather easily, whereas others rather loath to accept them. The most liberal in this regard, it seems, is the English language, because in it as a result of the mixture of Germanic and Romance vocabulary elements, the question of purity is not in general even posed. Thus the German word Kindergarten is taken over in the German form, only it is written with a small initial k (although the second element is frequently pronounced like English garden), the same holds for delicatessen (written with a c as it formerly was in German instead of the k as it is written now). Once the Russians launched the sputnik the word was immediately accepted in the American and English press. The American words beatnik and the slang vietnik are formed with the Slavic suffix -nik borrowed by way of Yiddish into English (cf. Yiddish nudnik 'importunate, tiresome person'). But in recent times in France even the Academy has begun to war against the Anglicisms, or more accurately the flood of Americanisms which are given the name Franglais. Beginning with the Soviet epoch Russians borrowed considerably from other languages, especially international words. After the revolution poorly educated party members threw them about so much that Lenin himself scolded them for their endless use of queer foreign words, e.g. defekty 'defects' instead of the Russian nedočety or nedostatki. But his own writings like those of other Communist theoreticians are characterized by the influence of German and French Marxist terminology. In recent times the Russians have borrowed an especially large number of concepts and terms from English and some from German. Cf. such a monster as kondicirovanije vozduxa from English air conditioning. But Lithuanian vėsintuvas 'air conditioner' is on the model of German Klimaanlage (Russian klimatičeskaja ustanovka 'climatic apparatus').

Attempts to cultivate language by purifying its vocabulary go back to the XVI century. With this in mind in Italy the Academia della Crusca was created in 1582, in Germany the Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (which fought against Gallicisms) was established in 1617 and in France the Academie Française was founded in 1635. The question of the reform of the Lithuanian written language was first raised in 1706 by a German priest from Lithuania Minor by the name of M. Morklin, who even thought of founding a Lithuanian philological society. Later S. Stanevičius worried about the insufficiency of the Lithuanian written language and later the aušrininkai ('the group of Lithuanian intellectuals who published the Lithuanian newspaper Aušra') practically but not very skilfully undertook this linguistic task. But the greatest reward for cleansing the Lithuanian language of foreign elements, especially Slavicisms, belongs to J. Jablonskis.