Volume 20, No.4 - Winter 1974
Editors of this issue: J.A. Rackauskas
Copyright © 1974 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.


The Library of Congress

The largest library in the country probably has the largest collection in both Americas of Lithuanian-language books and books on Lithuania in other languages. It its difficult to determine how many titles or volumes the Library has, since the Lithuanian materials are included in the Library's general collection and in special collections in various divisions of the Library. A rough estimate, based on cards in the Library's catalog drawers, indicates that there are about 2,500 titles, excluding fiction, poetry, and plays, for which catalog cards are not filed in one place.

This survey tries to give a general idea of the kind of literature that can or cannot be found in the Library of Congress for Lithuanian studies. More attention is given to older and rather rare publications, since more recent works are likely to be found in several other research libraries of the U.S., and to the humanities. Because this is not a bibliography, full titles are rarely quoted (except for periodicals).


The Library's collections on the history of Lithuania are quite extensive. Many of the books were purchased in August 1954 from the heirs of Petras Klimas, Lithuanian historian and diplomat. The important collections of documents are available, e.g.: the acts of the Vilna Commission for the Collection and Publication of Ancient Documents (Vilna, 1865 - 1915, 39 v.); the archeographic collection of documents, relevant to the history of northwestern Russia (Vilna, 1867 -1904, 14 v.); Bunge's Urkundenbuch (1900 -10, 12 v.); Scriptores rerum Prussicarum (1861 - 74, 5 v.); Sbornik drevnikh gramot i aktov gorodov: Vil'ny, Kovna, Trok... (Vilna, 1843); Codex diplomaticus (ed. by M. Dogiel, 1758); Ig. Danilowicz, Skarbiec diplomatow... (Wilno, 1860-62, 2 v.); A. Theiner, Vetera monumentą Poloniae et Lithuaniae... (Romae, 1860-64, 4 v.). However, the Library does not have Codex epistolaris Witoldi. The more recent publications of documents are: Relationes status diocesium in Magnu Ducatu Lithuaniae, 1-(Romae, 1971- Ed. by P. Rabikauskas et al.); The USSR -German Aggression against Lithuania (1973, ed. by B. J. Kasias). Several historical documents are also contained in Lietuvių archyvas, bolševizmo metai (1942-43, 4 v.), and Lietuvos TSR istorijos šaltiniai (1955-61, 4 v.). The Soviet justification for occupation of Lithuania in 1940 appears in documents published as Tarybų valdžios atkūrimas Lietuvoje 1940-41 (pub. 1965). Much source material on Lithuanian mythology and religion can be found in: Litvanicarum Societatis Jesu historiarum provincialium, by St. Rostowski (1768, 21877), and Letto - preussische Goetterlehre (1936, reprinted in 1971). The following current historical periodicals are available: Istorija (1958--), Lietuvos istorijos metraštis. (1971- ), Tautos praeitis (1959- 70, superseded by Lietuvių tautos praeitis, 1971- ).

The Library holds numerous historical monographs. The more recent works published in Lithuania, Poland, and the U.S., being readily available, are not listed here. Some older works or works that are more difficult to find may be mentioned: M. Dogiel (Limites, etc., 1758), B. Dundulis (Napoleon et la Lithuanie, 1940), O. Halecki (about Švitrigaila, 1915), A. Janulaitis (1936), L. Kolankowski (1913, 1930), S. Kutrzeba (Acta unji, 1932), I. I. Lappo (1901, 1911), H. Lowmianski (1931-1932, 2 v.), H. Paszkiewicz (1933, 1938), A. Prochaska (about Jogaila, 1908; about Vytautas, 1914), J. Puzinas (on archeology, 1935), A. Šapoka (general history, 1936, 1948; after Union of Lublin, 1938); P. Šležas (about Vytautas, 1930), J. Stakauskas (1934), P. Tarasenka (archeological material, 1928) J. Wollf (Senatorowie i dygnitarze W. K. L., 1885). Several works on cultural history may be mentioned: J. Basanavičius, Rinktiniai raštai (1970); M. Roemeris, Litwa (1908); A. Milukas, "Aušros" 40 m. sukaktuvės (1923); M. Biržiška, Iš mūsų kultūros ir literatūros istorijos (1931-38, 2 v.); Litauens Werden und Schaffen (1938, ed. by S. Vykintas).

There are many monographs about places in Lithuania, containing much historical and ethnographical material. First Mūsų Lietuva (4 v. 1964 - 68, by J. Kviklys) covers the whole country and there are monographs for the following localities: Anykščiai, Biržai, Dieveniškės, Kaunas, Kėdainiai (by P. Šinkūnas), Klaipėda, Mažoji Lietuva (see: Tautiniai santykiai Maž. Lietuvoje by V. Vileišis, 1935; Mažoji Lietuva, 1958; Lietuvininkai, 1970), Merkinė, Raudondvaris, Rimšė, Suvalkija (Užnemunė po Prūsais, by A. Janulaitis, 1928, and Sūduvos Suvalkijos istorija, by J. Totoraitis, 1938), Trakai, Vabalninkas (by K. Šakenis, 1935), Vilnius (by A. Šapoka).

Memoir literature is well represented, including works by J. Audėnas, K. Bielinis, L. Dovydėnas, K. Grinius, S. Kairys, M. Krupavičius, J. Petruitis, S. Raštikis, S. Rūkienė, R. Skipitis, V. Skorupskis, V. Šliogeris, M. Yčas (v. 3 only), K. Žukas, and others.

Studies on ethnography, archeology, and folk arts are well represented for the last 25 years.

Language and Linguistics

All the important grammars are available, from the first, by D. Klein (1653, reprinted in 1957), to the recent academic grammar in 3 vols. (1965-, v. 3 not yet published). The collection of dictionaries ranges from G. Nesselmann's (1851) to the most recent by A. Kurschat (1968-). The Library of Congress collections include selected works by K. Būga (1958 - 62, 3 vol.) and J. Jablonskis (1957-59, 2 vol.), and the most important works by the following linguists: V. Ambrazas, J. Balkevičius, L. Dambriūnas, E. Endzelins, G. B. Ford, E. Fraenkel, J. Jonikas, J. Kazlauskas, V. Mažiulis, R. Mironas, J. Otrębski, A. Salys, W. R. Schmalstieg, A. Senn, P. Skardžius, Chr. Stang, A. Vanagas, and Z. Zinkevičius. Quite extensive linguistic bibliographies, Lietuvių kalbotyra, covering the years 1944-1970, were published in Vilnius (1963-72, 3 pts.), and another by W. Kubicka, Języki Baltyckie bibliografia, published in Lodz (1967-68).

The following current linguistic periodicals are available: Acta Baltico - Slavica (1964- ), Baltistica (1965- ), Gimtoji kalba (1958-67), Kalbos kultūra (1961- ), Kalbotyra (1961- ), Lietuvių kalbotyros klausimai (1957- ), Literatūra ir kalba (1956- ), and Studi Baltici (1952- ).

Literature and Criticism

Sets of collected works by the following outstanding Lithuanian authors are available (years of publication in parenthesis): J. Aistis (1961), A. Baranauskas (1970), B. Brazdžionis (1970), L. Gira (1960-63), F. Kirša (1972), V. Krėvė (1960 - 61), V. Kudirka (1909), J. Maironis (1962, 1966), V. Mykolaitis-Putinas (1960-69), S. Neris (1946), J. Simonaitytė (1958), A. Škėma (1967- ), S. Stanevičius (1967), A. Strazdas (1957), Žemaitė (1956), J. Tumas-Vaižgantas (1922-29, and a selection in 2 v., 1957), Vydūnas (three principal plays in 1 v., 1968). Most of the belles-lettres (poetry, novels, and plays) published by the younger generation of writers after the Second World War anywhere in the world are available as are the multivolume histories of Lithuanian literature published in Chicago (Lietuvių literatūra, by D. Velička and J. Masilionis, 1959-61, 4 v.) and Vilnius (Lietuvių literatūros istorija, ed. by K. Korsakas, 1957-68, 4 v.). Monographs on the history of Lithuanian literature and criticism by the following authors are also available: J. Aistis, M. Biržiška, V. Biržiška (Aleksandrynas, 1960-65, 3 v.), K. Doveika, V. Galinis, L. Gineitis, V. Kubilius, J. Lankutis, J. Lebedys, R. Mikšytė, R. Pakalniškis, A. Sprindis, J. Žėkaitė, and V. Zobarskaitė. Anthologies, almanacs, and yearbooks on literature and arts, published in Lithuania proper and abroad since early 1950s, are well represented. Collections of Lithuanian folklore in the original and in translation are quite extensive, including works by J. Balys, J. Basanvičius, J. Čiurlionytė, A. Juška, Z. Slaviūnas, and others. An extensive bibliography, Tarybinė lietuvių literatūra ir kritika, covers the years 1945-1970 (pub. 1957-72, 4 pts.).

Social Sciences

For the history of foreign relations a useful source is Recueil des traites conclus par la Lithuanie avec les pays etrangers (ed. by P. Dailidė, 1930-39, 2 v., in Lithuanian and French). The collections of laws are: Lietuvos įstatymai (comp. by A. Merkys et al., 1922-25, 2 v.); Civiliniai įstatymai (ed. by K. Šalkauskis, 1933); and for the Soviet period there is a chronological collection of laws, edicts of the Supreme Soviet, and Government decisions of the Lithuanian SSR (ed. by A. Žiurlys, 1956 -58, 6 pts., in Russian and Lithuanian).

Sources on the economy of Lithuania are represented by publications of the Ministry of Finance and the Statistical Bureau of Lithuania in its several periodicals (bulletin, yearbook, etc.), published during Lithuania's independence; see titles listed in the section "Periodicals" and also the following periodical publications: Economic and General Bulletin ("Elta", 1924-40), Wirtschafliche Informationen (1930-33), Volkswirtschaft (1938-39). For agriculture see Metraštis (i.e., annals) of the Ministry of Agriculture for the years 1918-24, and 1918-38 (pub. in 1927 and 1938, resp.). Much agricultural information and numerous statistics are summarized in Lietuvos žemės ūkis ir statistika, ed. by A. Musteikis (1948). A general survey is given in the English-language book Ten Years of Lithuanian Economy (1938). Much information and many statistical tables are supplied in Pirmasis Nepriklausomos Lietuvos dešimtmetis, 1918-1928 (pub. 1930). Concerning finance see Lietuvos Banko biuletenis (1928-1940). For the postwar period, see the monthly Liaudies ūkis (1961- ), publications of Central Statistical Board in Vilnius, and several monographs, all prepared according to Soviet statistical methods.

Recent literature about Lithuanians living in both Americas is well represented. Abundant information can be found in works (many of which are voluminous) compiled by A. Ambrose (1967), K. Baronas (1954), J. Brizgys (1968), J. Končius (1966), A. Kučas (1971), V. Liulevičius (1971), A. Margeris (1958), S. Michelsonas (1961), J. Papečkys (1963), A. Petrika (1965), I. Sakalas (1963), K. Šidlauskas (1966), V. Sirvydas (1941), L. Šimutis (1971), P. Ulevičius (1960), and others. A few older publications may be mentioned: Amerika ir Amerikos lietuviai, by K. Gineitis (1925), Pasaulio lietuviai, ed. by P. Ruseckas (1935), Lithuanian Alliance in America, ed. by S. E. Vitaitis (1936), and Amerikos lietuviai XIX šimt. 1868-1900, by A. Milukas (1938). Several monographs were published on Catholic parishes, convents, etc., founded and maintained by Lithuanians in the U.S. A few pamphlets were published in English by C. W. Coulter (1920), S. F. Kemėšis (1924), S. Pieza (see in I. Sakalas, 1963), J. S. Rouček (1940), Th. Shamis (1940), P. C. Širvaitis* (1952), P. P. Jonaitis (1953), B. Novickis (esp. about women, 1968). A good collective work in English, Lithuanians in Canada, is by P. Gaida et al. (1967). There are also local almanacs about Lithuanians in Chicago (1952), in California (1963), a biographical directory, Amerikos lietuvių vardynas (1953), and The Lithuanians World Directory (2nd ed. 1958, ed. by A. Simutis).

Several monographs about important Lithuanian men are available, including ones about J. Adomaitis-Šernas, K. Balutis, M. K. Čiurlionis, J. Maironis, A. Milukas, V. Nagevičius, K. Pakštas, S. Šalkauskis, J. O. Širvydas, K. Sleževičius, A. Smetona, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas, and A. Vanagaitis.

Reference Works and Bibliographies

Reference and bibliographic works are abundant in the Library of Congress. Lietuviškoji enciklopedija, pub. in Kaunas, 1933-44 (first 4 vols.), Lietuvių enciklopedija (Boston, 1953-69, 36 v.), Tarybinė enciklopedija (Vilnius, 1966-71, 3 v.) are on public reference shelves. All the important bibliographies are represented: J. Žilius (1900), S. Baltramaitis (1891, 21904), V. Biržiška's capital work (1924 39, 5 pts.), Lietuvos TSR spauda 1940-55 (1962-), Knygos lietuvių kalba I ,1547 - 1861 (pub. 1969), and quite a number of special bibliographies, e.g., on archeology, geology, history, linguistics, literature, medicine, etc. Periodicals on library and bibliography matters are also available: Knygos (1922-39), Bibliografijos žinios (1928-44), Bibliotekų darbas (1949-54), Knygų lentyna — Bookshelf (1951-66), Bibliotekininkystė ir bibliografija (1961-64), Bibliotekininkystės ir bibliografijos klausimai (1961-69), Lietuvių išeivių spaudos metraštis (1966- ), Knygotyra (1970- ), etc. The large state bibliographic enterprise, Lietuvos TSR Knygų rūmai (Book Chamber of the . Lithuanian SSR), periodically has published several journals giving current bibliographic listing of new books, articles in journals, reviews, music, etc., as a kind of national bibliography. The latest title is: Spaudos metraštis (Press Annals, monthly since 1957), established by the merger of separate annals for books and articles. All publications by the Book Chamber are in Lithuanian and Russian. The Library's holdings of publications by this institution are quite incomplete, owing to acquisition difficulties.

The Library of Congress receives numerous selective bibliographies, the "lists of recommended literature," on special subjects and themes, published by the Lithuanian State Republic Library in Vilnius. Other bibliographic series are: the bibliography of books and articles published by the scientific staff of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, which has appeared irregularly since 1955; similar bibliographies of publications by the research and teaching staff of the Vilnius State University were issued by the University Library for the years 1951 - 59.

Periodicals, Serial Publications, and Newspapers

The Library's Lithuanian holdings include very few Lithuanian books and periodicals published before the Second World War. Some books published during that period are now being acquired from second hand book dealers and some are being received as gifts. The Library does not have any long runs of Lithuanian newspapers or magazines, cultural or literary weeklies or monthlies published in independent Lithuania, such as Akademikas, Naujoji Romuva, Židinys, or Vairas. Only the official state publications are well represented, e.g., publications by the Lithuanian Statistical Bureau, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, University of Lithuania in Kaunas, Bank of Lithuania, the official gazette Vyriausybės žinios (1918-40, complete), and Amtsblatt des Memelgebietes (1921-38), Ostland in Zahlen (1942), Statistische Berichte fuer das Ostland (1942-43, incomplete).

The following serial publications of independent Lithuania, which are rather rare in the Western world, may be mentioned: Archivum philologicum (1930-39), Lietuvos praeitis (1940), Lietuvos ūkis (1921-28), Lietuvos ūkis ir rinka (1930-32), Mūsų senovė (1921-22, 1937-39), Mūsų žinynas (1931-39, incomplete), Praeitis (1930-33), Savivaldybė (1923-37), Švietimo darbas (1919-30), Tauta ir žodis (1923-31), Tautos ūkis — Volkswirtschaft (1938), Policija (1924-32), and Žemėtvarka ir melioracija (1930-1940).

Several serial publications of the University of Lithuania in Kaunas are available: Humanitarinių mokslų fakulteto raštai (1925-37, incomplete), the translation series Universitas (incomplete), Matematikos - gamtos fakulteto darbai (1923-39), Technika (1924-39), Teisių fakulteto darbai (1924-39). Žemės ūkio akademijos metraštis (1926 -1940) and Contributions of the Baltic University in Pinneberg (1946-48, with some gaps) are also available.

In the Rare Book Division is kept a collection of Lithuanian underground newspapers (15 titles and 111 issues), published in Lithuania during the German occupation, covering the period from Oct. 1942 to early April 1944. The collection is laminated for better preservation.

The Library receives quite a number of recent serial publications, among which are: Iš lietuvių kultūros istorijos (1958-), Iš mokslų istorijos Lietuvoje (1960-), Lietuvių liaudies menas (1956-), Lietuvos architektūros klausimai (1960- ), Kraštotyra (1965- ), Muziejai ir paminklai (1968-69). All the serial publications of the University of Vilnius and the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences (its Darbai, ser. A, B, C) are regularly received, as are Mokslo darbai published by the Polytechnical Institute in Kaunas, the Geological Institute in Vilnius, the Lithuanian Agricultural Academy, the Lithuanian Veterinarian Academy, and some other research and teaching institutions.

Many independent series in the early 1960s were consolidated under the general title, Lietuvos TSR aukštųjų mokyklų mokslo darbai, with its numerous subseries: Biologija, Chemija ir cheminė technologija, Elektrotechnika ir mechanika, Ekonomika, Filosofija, Geografija ir geologija, Istorija, Kalbotyra, Literatūra, Menotyra, Pedagogika ir psichologija, Statyba ir architektūra, Teisė, Ultragarsas, Vibrotechnika, and others. There are some gaps in the Library's holdings and not all the titles listed above are fully cataloged. Articles in the scientific series of contemporary Lithuania are published mostly in Russian, with summaries in Lithuanian and often in English. Articles in the humanities are published mostly in Lithuanian, with summaries in Russian and English or German. All the publications of the Lithuanian Catholic Academy (Rome), the Baltisches Forschungsinstitut (Bonn), the Institutum Balticum (Königstein), as well as the Institute for Lithuanian Studies, the Lithuanian Institute of Education, and the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, all in the United States, are kept in the Library of Congress.

The Library does not have any significant holdings of Lithuanian newspapers or magazines published in the United States before 1940, but since then two Lithuanian-language daily newspapers, both published in Chicago, have been kept permanently on microfilm: Draugas (from Sept. 1940 to date with a gap for Jan. 1947 to Oct. 1957), and Naujienos (from Apr. 1941 to date). Other Lithuanian-language newspapers published outside Lithuania are kept for the current year only. The following newspapers published in present-day Lithuania are kept permanently: Komjaunimo tiesa, Literatūra ir menas, Sovetskaia Litva, Tarybinis mokytojas, and Tiesa. Most journals and magazines are bound and kept permanently, whatever their place of publication.

Inquiries about material concerning Lithuanian affairs may be directed to the Slavic and Central European Division of the Library. Letters of inquiry come not only from the U.S. and Canada, but also from Europe and So. America, from Lithuanians and members of other nationalities, chiefly from professors and students writing theses. The inquiries in person or by correspondence are answered by the Senior Reference Librarian on duty or by the Area Specialist (Baltic), a position established in 1964, and filled by the author. Reference works on Lithuania and other Baltic countries are housed in the Slavic Room on shelves labeled "Baltic States."