Volume 24, No.2 - Summer 1978
Editor of this issue: J.A.Račkauskas
ISSN 0024-5089
Copyright © 1978 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.


Elon College

The Soviet absorption of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1940 dramatically ended a twenty two year experiment to create viable political entities along the southeastern shore of the Baltic. German and Soviet occupation during World War II compounded this tragedy and forced many Baltic peoples to migrate to the West. The new immigrants came to areas previously settled by earlier Baltic groups and also established new ones. Within a decade, there were strong Baltic communities in Europe, North and South America, and Australia. The new groups, like the older ones, quickly developed an active press, which, stimulated by two decades of independence, stressed their "international ethnicity"1 as well as their determination to maintain their culture, history, and carry on an active campaign to restore independence for their countries. Overall, they have been quite successful with their first two goals, though they have been unable to secure Baltic independence. Their continued interest, however, in developments in the U.S.S.R. provides Soviet scholars with an excellent source of information on events in the Soviet Baltic Republics and a background for the study of Moscow's policies in general.


Estonia, the smallest of the Baltic countries, had a population of 1,133,917 in 1939, while approximately 70, 000 to 100,000 fled to the West between 1940-1945. The new Estonian immigrants, instilled with a strong sense of national pride because of twenty two years of Estonian independence, differed from the small groups who preceded them before World War II. They possessed a "well-developed ethnic self-awareness.., a high degree of political consciousness," and a strong hatred of communism 2, which is reflected in their publications.

The Estonian émigré press publishes a number of periodicals in the West, particularly in Sweden, Canada, and the United States. Sweden is an important Estonian émigré center and sponsors several very important Estonian publications. One of the best is the newspaper, Eesti Paevaleht (Estonian Daily), which offers excellent coverage of events in Soviet Estonia, though its competitor, Valis Eesti (Estonia Abroad), which merged with Eesti Post (Estonian Post) in January, 1976, has better information on Soviet Estonia and items on Estonian history. In addition, Valis Eesti is an important outlet for Soviet Estonian publications, a role that does not endear it to some Estonian émigrés 3.

Another Swedish Estonian newspaper, Teataja, provides the best coverage of events in Soviet Estonia with major articles on anti-government activities and official reaction in Estonia. In addition, there are several small Estonian newspapers in Sweden such as Meie Post (Our Post), which broke away from Eesti Post several years ago, Uus Eesti (New Estonia), and Tuulemaa (Land of Wind), which offer little for Soviet scholars 4.

The Estonian Information Center in Stockholm is another important source of information on Soviet Estonia and its samizdat activities. It publishes, with the Latvian National Foundation, the Newsletter from Behind the Iron Curtain, an important primary source on events throughout the U.S.S.R. which concentrates on developments in the Soviet Baltic Republics, particularly Estonia. In addition, the Estonian Information Center has published several Estonian samizdat appeals, including "Appeals from Estonia" to the United Nations, signed by the Democratic Movement and the Estonian National Front in Tallinn, October 24, 1972, and similar appeals of December 23 and 25, 1974. In addition, the Center has also published other works on Soviet civil rights violations as well as a series of small books in English on the Baltic states 5.

There are several Estonian newspapers published in the United States such as Vaba Eesti Sana {Free Estonian World), a conservative newspaper that has an excellent section of stories and photographs on Soviet Estonia, Estonian history, and the general anti-communist underground movement in the U.S.S.R. Another important Estonian newspaper, Meie Tee (Our Path), published by the World Association of Estonians in New York, provides wide coverage of Estonian events in the United States and has numerous articles on Soviet Estonia and Estonian history. Editorially, it is strongly anti-communist and one of its editors, H. Raudsepp, holds a similar position with Vaba Eesti Sana 6.

There are also several smaller Estonian publications in the United States that discuss events in Estonia such as the small communist newspaper, Uus Urn {New World), one of the oldest Estonian periodicals in America, Eesti Postimees (Estonian Courier), and Mana, an American edited, Swedish published journal that covers culture and the arts and occasionally publishes works by Soviet Estonian writers, something opposed by some Estonian emigres. In addition, Nordic Press annually publishes Valiseestlase Calendar, which covers Estonian history and events in Soviet Estonia 7. Several other Estonian groups headquartered in New York such as the Konstantin Pats Fund, the Estonian Learned Society, the Legion of Estonian Liberation, the Consulate General of Estonia, and others sponsor a number of books, pamphlets, and newsletters in English and Estonian that touch on Estonian history and problems since 1940 8.

Canada is another important center for Estonian publications with two newspapers and several journals. One, Vaba Eesilane (Free Estonian), published twice weekly, covers Soviet Estonian affairs and general Soviet policies as well as corollary Baltic topics, while Meie Elu (Our Life), a weekly, follows a similar format and provides general information on developments in the U.S.S.R. Other small journals in Canada, such as Triinu and Rahvuslane (Nationalist) offer little on Soviet Estonia 9.

Australia and Germany also have small Estonian communities which publish several periodicals. Australia's only newspaper, Meie Kodu (Our Home), has little new information on Soviet Estonia since it draws much of its news and editorial content from other non-Australian Estonian publications. Generally, Australia's Estonians do not publish as extensively as they once did, though they do have an excellent Estonian Archives in Sydney 10.

There are two Estonian newspapers published in Germany, Eesti Rada (Estonian Path) and Voitleja (The Fighter). The former, once one of the largest Estonian newspapers in the West, is now a small, monthly information-news bulletin.which provides broad coverage of Soviet and Estonian questions, while the latter, Voitleja, a monthly publication supported by Estonian veterans, has excellent stories on Estonian history, current political issues, and information on Soviet Estonia 11.

Great Britain has only one Estonian newspaper, Eesti Haal (Estonian Voice), a weekly published by the Association of Estonians in Great Britain, which devotes little to Soviet Estonian affairs. In addition, there are other isolated Estonian publications released by Estonian communities and diplomatic representatives throughout the world that add little to the current discussion 12.


Latvia was the second largest Baltic country in 1939 with a population of 2,001,900. Approximately 200,000 Latvians fled to the West during and after World War II and they currently sponsor a number of periodicals.13

The United States is the most important center for Latvian publications, with over thirty newspapers, journals, newsletters, and magazines. The most important news organ is Laiks, a semi-weekly considered the "most extensively read newspaper" among Latvians in the West. Laiks offers some information on Latvian history since 1940, though it is not as important as the monthly Latvian Information Bulletin of the Latvian Legation in Washington, D.C. The Latvian Information Bulletin is a valuable source in English for Soviet scholars that concentrates on developments in the Soviet Baltic Republics, Soviet nationality policies, and domestic American reaction to the plight of Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians in the U.S.S.R. 14

Another significant journal, Akademiška Dzive (Academic Life), has a number of articles on pre-Soviet and Soviet Latvian history, culture, science, and literature. Another periodical, Treji Varti (Three Gates), provides similar coverage in Latvian on a monthly basis, while a third, Zeme un Tauta, offers some information on Latvian history since 1940. Another extremely important Latvian journal, the American Latvian Associations' ALA Zurnals', periodically touches on events in Soviet Latvia. In addition, other Latvian organizations such as the Latvian Legation publish a number of important works on conditions in Soviet Latvia. One of the most recent is the World Federation of Free Latvians' memoranda on Reestablishing Freedom and Independence in Latvia in Connection with the European Security and Cooperation Conference, which documents the Baltic claim to the restoration of their independence as well as Soviet oppression in Latvia 15.

There are also several important Latvian periodicals published in Canada such as the newspaper, Latvija Amerika, sponsored by the Latvian Welfare Organization, Daugavas Vanaji. Latvija Amerika has excellent stories of events in Soviet Latvia and is often subject to Soviet press attacks. Canada's Latvians also have Jauna Gaita (Latvian Youth Magazine), a cultural journal which reviews Soviet Latvian publications and touches on current events in Latvia 16.

West Germany's Latvian community also produces a number of journals and newspapers that offer some insight into recent developments in Latvia, such as the weekly newspaper, Latvija, Universitas-Trimda, a semi-annual scholarly journal, and the annual Acta Baltica 17.

There are also several Latvian publications in Sweden such as Eljas Informacija, an anti-communist youth magazine that is an important outlet for information on Soviet Latvia and Briviba, a publication of the Latvian Social Democratic Party which reports on Soviet oppression in Latvia 18.

In addition, Latvians in Great Britain publish the newspapers Londonas Aviže and Cela Zimes, which has some news on Soviet Latvia, while Australia's Latvian community has several periodicals including the journal Archivs, and the newspaper Australians Latvietis, which both cover Soviet Latvian developments. Finally, several Latvian periodicals in Latin America such as Ziem Dienvidus Krusla and Kristigs Draugs carry news on Latvia since 1940 19.


The extensive Lithuanian émigré press is a far better source of information for Soviet scholars than its Baltic counterparts. Lithuania, of course, was the largest Baltic country in 1939 with an estimated population of 2,879,070. In addition, it had established a strong émigré community in the United States before World War I with an estimated population of 252,594. Consequently, with additional immigration after 1914, some estimate the Lithuanian American community to number between 750,000 and 1,000,000 individuals 20. In addition, Lithuania's various ethnic, religious, and territorial struggles throughout its long history created a particularly sensitive nationalistic outlook in its ethnic communities that has grown during Lithuania's years as a Soviet Republic. Its large, productive population and its interest in Soviet Lithuanian affairs makes the Lithuanian émigré press a very significant source of information on affairs in the Soviet Baltic region.

The Lithuanian press is strongest in the United States, with over twelve newspapers and forty periodicals. One of the largest newspapers, Naujienos (News), an anticommunist daily, provides some coverage of Soviet Lithuanian affairs. Another anti-Soviet daily, Draugas (The Friend), carries stories on Soviet Lithuania, with particular emphasis on the samizdat Lietuvių Kataliktų Bažnyčios Kronika (Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania) and Aušra (The Dawn). The next largest Lithuanian newspaper, Darbininkas (The Worker), is a weekly publication of the Franciscan Fathers that frequently deals with the religious situation in Soviet Lithuania, while a smaller paper. Garsas (The Sound), published by the Lithuanian Catholic Alliance, has numerous stories on Lithuanian history since 1940 and also a valuable English section 21.

In addition, there are a number of smaller Lithuanian American newspapers that offer equally important coverage of events in Soviet Lithuania such as Tėvynė (Fatherland), Sandara (The League), Laisvoji Lietuva (Free Lithuania), Dirva (The Field), Laisvė (Liberty), Vienybė (Unity), Vilnis {The Wave), and Keleivis (The Traveler). The last four are small Lithuanian American newspapers which some older Lithuanians feel follow liberal or worse policies. Despite this opposition, these organs publish fre uent items on Soviet Lithuania and the U.S.S.R. as well as stories from Soviet Lithuania's principle newspaper, Tiesa 22.

Lithuanian periodicals in the United States are another important source of information on the Soviet Union, both for their content and occasional English sections. The most valuable publication is the Bulletin of the ELTA Information Service of the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania, which issues a monthly newsletter in six languages that highlights Soviet oppression throughout the U.S.S.R., particularly Lithuania. In the past, it has printed appeals by Andrei Sakharov, Aleksandr Solzhenytsin, and Sergei Kovalev as well as major excerpts from Soviet Lithuania's major samizdat publication, the Chronicle, and its newer ones. Aušra (The Dawn), Varpas (The Bell), and Dievui ir Tėvynei (For God and Country). It has also been a major outlet for stories on the Lithuanian hero, Simas Kudirka, whom the Soviet government ultimately allowed to come to the United States several years after the United States Coast Guard foiled his efforts to defect in 1970, and the riots in Kaunas on May 18-19, 1972, following the self-immolation of Romas Kalanta 23.

In addition, ELTA has sponsored other publications such as Juozas Audėnas' Twenty Years Struggle for Freedom of Lithuania, which discusses ELTA's fight against the Soviet Union in and out of Lithuania since 1940 and pamphlets in English on Lithuanian history 24.

Other Lithuanian American organizations sponsor similar studies on current Lithuanian problems in the U.S.S.R., with particular emphasis on Soviet religious persecution. The most significant project is the Roman Catholic Priests' League series of translated editions of the samizdat Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania. The Chronicle, which began in 1971, is a thirty page, typed organ that began as a forum for letters, personal statements, and court transcripts on Soviet activities against the Catholic Church in Lithuania. Recently, it has begun to touch on nonreligious topics and discuss the question of "suppression of national rights." Overall, efforts to inform the outside world of Lithuanian-Soviet religious problems have been highly successful and stories on this question have appeared in the New York Times, Commonweal, the Washington Post, The Examiner in Bombay, India, The Times, and other publications 25.

The Chronicle has also stimulated other works such as a book on Romas Kalanta, the Lithuanian who immolated himself to protest Soviet religious persecution in 1972, a pamphlet on the trial and conviction of Nijolė Sadūnaitė for her association with the Chronicle in Lithuania, the appeal of Antanas Terleckas to the head of the KGB, J. Savasis' book on Moscow's antireligious policies against the Catholic Church in Lithuania since 1940, and others 26. Overall, they provide a highly significant view of Soviet policies vis a vis organized underground religious practices and nationalistic activities in Soviet Lithuania.

Similar coverage is offered by periodicals such as Lituanus, the prestigious Lithuanian American journal in English that accentuates Lithuanian history, culture, Soviet Baltic affairs, and developments in Estonia and Latvia as well as publications such as Aidai (Echoes), a monthly Lithuanian cultural journal and Laiškai Lietuviams (Letters to Lithuanians), a religious, cultural periodical. Another, Karys (Warrior), a magazine for Lithuanian veterans, offers frequent stories on Lithuanian history, particularly since 1940. The widely circulated, beautifully produced Lietuvių Dienos (Lithuanian Days) is also important and has editorials and stories on Lithuanian history since the Soviet occupation. Another, Pasaulio Lietuvis (The World Lithuanian), has some items on the current religious and civil rights movement in Lithuania, while Svečias (The Guest), published by the Lithuanian American Lutheran community, has articles on post-1940 Lithuanian history and current events as well as some information on the samizdat movement in Estonia, Latvia, and the U.S.S.R., with emphasis on Protestant religious difficulties with Soviet authorities 27. Similarly, the Lithuanian American community publishes an annual report entitled The Violations of Human Rights in Soviet Occupied Lithuania, which closely documents Soviet persecution of religious dissenters, intellectuals, and others in Lithuania. Consequently, it is an excellent source in English and other languages on anti-Soviet activities in the Soviet Lithuanian Republic 28.

Lithuania's active emigre community also publishes frequently outside the United States. Canadian Lithuanians, for example, have two major weekly newspapers, Nepriklausoma Lietuva {Independent Lithuania) and Tėviškės Žiburiai (The Lights of Home). The latter has excellent coverage of events in Soviet Lithuania 29.

Australia's Lithuanians also sponsor several newspapers such as Mūsų Pastogė (Our Haven), which has a few items on Soviet Lithuanian problems, particularly the Chronicle and violations of the Helsinki Agreement. Another, Tėviškės Aidai (The Echoes of Homeland), Australia's small Lithuanian Catholic weekly, has surprisingly good coverage of these issues 30.

The Lithuanian community in Latin America has several periodicals that offer important discussions on developments in Soviet Lithuania, though they take many of their stories from other Lithuanian sources in the United States. Latin America's most productive Lithuanian community is in Brasil, and publishes a weekly, Mūsų Lietuva (Our Lithuania), which has news items on Soviet Lithuanian problems and publishes a supplement in Portugese on Latvian and Estonian affairs as well as Baltic problems with Moscow. In addition, Brasil's Lithuanians publish other works in Portugese on Soviet violations of civil and religious rights in Lithuania, Moscow's absorption of the Baltic states in 1940, and histories of the Baltic states 31.

Several Lithuanian publications also appear in Argentina, including the newspaper Laikas (The Time), which reports on events in Soviet Lithuania and Argentinos Lietuvių Balsas (The Argentine Lithuanian Voice). Argentina's Lithuanians also issue several pamphlets and books on Lithuanian religious and civil problems in the U.S.S.R. 32


Finally, there are several publications that cover all of the Baltic countries. The most important is Baltische Briefe, a Baltic German magazine that discusses current Baltic problems. In addition, the Baltisches Gesellschaft in Deutschland publishes two newsletters, Mittellungen aus baltischen Leben and Baltisches Recht, which are important sources on Baltic history, particularly since 1940, Germany's Baltic German community also issues Baltisches Hefte, which touches mainly on Baltic German problems and the Jahrbuch des baltischen Deutschems. In addition, Sweden's Baltic German community publishes Nachrichten aus dem Baltikum. 33.

Several other significant Baltic publications for Soviet scholars include the newsletter, Baltic Events, which ceased publication last year and appeared previously in English as Estonian Events. Baltic Events was an extremely important bimonthly newsletter that covered developments in each of the Soviet Baltic Republics. It received most of its information from first hand accounts and reports in the Soviet press. The Baltic Review, another significant, discontinued magazine, published in several languages by the Committee for a Free Europe, was an important outlet for scholarly information on the Baltic states and the Soviet Baltic Republics 34.

Despite the demise of several important Baltic publications, several others have emerged that provide a similar view of the Baltic situation in the Soviet Union. The most important is the prestigious quarterly, Journal of Baltic Studies, published by the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, currently the most important general Baltic organization in the non-Soviet world. The AABS also sponsors periodic international conferences on the Baltic countries and publishes a variety of studies on different aspects of Baltic history and culture. In addition, a smaller organization, the United Baltic Appeal and its subsidiary, the Baltic Appeal to the United Nations, publishes periodic news releases which touch on Baltic dissidents in the U.S.S.R. as well as various pamphlets and other materials on Baltic history since 1940 35.

The Baltic émigré press plays a very important role in the non-Soviet Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian communities and sustains an important cultural link between these groups and their counterparts in the U.S.S.R. In addition, it is an excellent public outlet for the dissident movement in the Soviet Baltic Republics as well as the Soviet Union and an important source for Soviet scholars.

Unfortunately, there are some language -problems, though they are not insurmountable. In fact, many of the significant developments in the Soviet Baltic Republics eventually surface in Baltic English language publications, though these translations do not reveal the intense nationalism and pride that stimulate these efforts nor the real effect of past and present Baltic history on the outlook of the various Baltic communities.

Overall, the Baltic émigré press significantly contributes to the study of Soviet occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and their role in the Soviet scheme of things. At the same time, the Baltic émigré press also casts some light on Soviet nationality policies and their effect on dissident elements in the Soviet Baltic region.

[See also: Letter to the Editor by Mykolas Drunga]


1 Jaan Pennar Tonu Farming, and P. Peter Rebane, The Estonians in America, 1627-1975: A Chronology and Fact Book (Dobbs Ferry: Ocean Publishers, Inc., 1975), IX
2 Arvo Horm, "Aspects of Estonian Co-operative Movement in Exile," paper, Thirds Conference on Baltic Studies in Scandinavia (June, 1975), p. 5.
3 Eesti Paevalehi, no. 48/4138 (July 3, 1976), pp. 2, 4; Ibid., no. 49/4139 (July 7, 1976), pp. 2, 4-5; Ibid., no. 69/4159 (September 15, 1976), pp. 1, 3, 6-7; Malis Besti, no. 5-6/869 (June 23, 1975), pp. 1, 3-6; Ibid., no. 2/874 (February 27, 1976), pp. 1, 5; Ibid., no. 3/875 (March 31, 1976), pp. 1-7.
4 Teataja, no. 1/1169 (January 24, 1976), pp. 1, 5-7; Ibid., no. 10/1178 (June 19, 1976), pp. 1-2, 5, 8.
5 Newsletter from Behind the Iron Curtain, XXVI, no. 474 (June, 1972), pp. 10-21 passim; Ibid., XXVIII, no. 484 (December, 1974), pp. 35-42; Ibid., XXX, no. 489 (March, 1976), pp. 1-10 passim; "Two Memoranda to UNO from Estonia," (Stockholm: Estonian Information Centre, 1974); "Appeal from Estonia," (Stockholm: Estonian Information Centre, 1975): E. Krepp, "Security and Non-Aggression: Baltic States and U.S.S.R. Treaties of Non-Aggression, III (Stockholm: Sormlands Grafiška AB, 1973).
6 Vaba Eesti Sona, XXVIII, no. 23/1385 (June 3, 1976), pp. 1, 3-4, 6-7, 9; Ibid., XXVIII, no. 28/1390 (July 8, 1976), pp. 2-4, 7, 9, 11; Pennar, IX, pp. 19-20.
7 Ibid., pp. 10-11, 12, 51-52, 75; Valiseestlase Kakndar, 1975 (New York: The Nordic Press, 1975), pp. 1-188 passim.
8 Estonia.- Story of a Nation (New York: Estonian House, 1975); The Consulate General of Estonia, Policy of the United States of America towards Estonia (New York: Esto Press, n.d.); Ernst Jaakson, "Memorandum on Estonia," (New York, 1973); Ernst Jaakson, Soviet Russian Imperialism (New York: Esto Press, 1970).
9 Vaba Eestlane, XXV, no. 35/2285 (May 6, 1976), pp. 1-3; Ibid., XXV, no. 50/2300 (July 6, 1976), pp. 1, 7, 10; Ibid., XXV, no. 52/2302 (July 13, 1976), pp. 2-3, 5, 8; Ibid., XXV, 53/2303 (July 15, 1976), pp. 3-4, 8; Ibid., XXV, no. 54/2304 (July 20, 1976), pp. 2-3, 6, 8; Ibid., XXV, no. 55/2305 (July 22, 1976), pp. 1-3, 7; Ibid., XXV, no. 56/2306 (July 27, 1976), pp. 1-3, 7-8; Ibid.f XXV, no. 57/2307 (July 29, 1976), pp. 1-3, 5, 8; Meit Elu, no. 40/1390 (October 1, 1976), pp. 2-3, 7.
10 Hugh Salasoo, "Eestikeelset Perioodikat Vaba Maailmas," in Elmar Laiške, ed., AustraaUa eestlased šonas ja teas (Sydney: Eesti Akadeemiline Koondis, 1969), pp. 111-120.
11 Eesti Rada, XXXI, no. 3/620 (May-June, 1976), pp. 1-4; Voitlfja, no. 1/283 (January, 1976), pp. 1-4, 6; Jbid., no. 2-3/284-285 (February-March, 1976), pp. 1-5, 7-8; Ibid., no. 4-5/286-287 (April-May, 1976), pp. 1, 3-8; Ibid., no. 6/288 (June, 1976), pp. 1-6; Ibid., no. 7/289-290 (July-August, 1976), pp. 1-8.
12 Eesti Had, no. 1493 (August 13, 1976), pp. 1-4 passim; Ibid., no. 1494 (August 20, 1976), pp. 1-4 passim; Ibid., no. 1495 (August 27, 1976), pp. 1-4 passim.
13 Maruta Karklis, Liga Streips, and Laimonis Streips, The Latvians in America, 1640-1973 (Dobbs Ferry: Oceana Publishers, 1974), p. 32; "Latvia: Country, People, Liberty," (Rockeville: American-Latvian Association, 1976), p. 7; Edgars Dunsdorfs, "BrivasPasaules Latviešu Periodika," Archivs, X (1970), p. 89.
14 Karklis, p. 145; The Latvian Legation, Latvian Information Bulletin, nos. 3-4/72-76 (July 1972-October 1976), pp. 1-19 passim.
15 Akademiška Dzive, no. 18 (1976), pp. 1-12; 13-24; 25-29; Treji Varti, no. 51 (1976), pp. 3-5; Zeme un Tauta, no 14 (1975), pp. 26-27; 39-40; Ibid., no. 15 (1976), pp. 2-4, 49; ALA Zurnals, no. 1 (1970), pp. 1-13, 14-16, 37; Ibid., no. 2 (1971), p. 2; Ibid., no. 3 (1971), pp. 15-17, 24-27; Reestablishing Freedom and Independence in Latvia in Connection with the European Security and Cooperation Conference (Washington, D.C.: World Federation of Free Latvians, 1975).
16 Latvija Amerika, no. 28 (July 10, 1976), pp. 1-20 passim; ibid., no. 30 0uly 24, 1976), pp. 1-16 passim; Jauna Gaita, XXI, no. 2 (1976), pp. 42-62 passim.
17 Dunsdorfs, p. 118, 126.
18 Eljas Informacija (1973); Briviba, no. 7 (September 1976), pp. 1-16 passim.
19 Dunsdorfs, pp. 89-116 passim.
20 Algirdas M. Budreckis, The Lithuanians in America, 1651-1975 (Dobbs Ferry: Oceana Publications, 1976), p. 151; Dr. Antanas Kučas, The Lithuanians in America, translated by Joseph Boley (Boston: Encyclopedia Lituanica, 1975), p. 59, 61, 297; J.P. Balys, "The American Lithuanian Press," Lituanus, XXII, no. 1 (Spring, 1976), p. 42.
21 Naujienos, no. 139 (June 12, 1976), p. 4; Ibid., no. 195 (August 18, 1976), p. 4; Naujienos, no. 198 (August 21, 1976), p. 4; Ibid., no. 199 (August 23, 1976), pp. 2, 4; Ibid., no. 200 (August 24, 1976), p. 4; Draugas, no. 150 (June 12, 1976), part 2, pp. 1-2, 4-5; Ibid., no. 150 (June 26, 1976), part 2, pp. 3-4; Ibid., no. 155 (July 2, 1976), p. 1, 3; Ibid., no. 195 (August 19, 1976), pp. 1, 3; Ibid., no. 226 (September 25, 1976), p. 1 and part 2, pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 227 (September 27, 1976), p. 1; Darbininkas, LXI, no. 25 (June 18, 1976), pp. 1, 4; Ibid., LXI, no. 29 (July 16, 1976), pp. 1, 3, 5; Ibid., LXI, no. 30 (July 23, 1976), pp. 1-3; Ibid., LXI, no. 31 (July 30, 1976), pp. 1-3; Ibid., LXI, no. 32 (August 6, 1976), pp. 1-3; Ibid., LXI, no. 34 (august 20, 1976), p. 1; Garsas, no. 6 (June 1976), pp. 2, 5-6; Ibid., no. 7 (September 1976), pp. 2, 4-6.
22 Tėvynė, no. 13 (September 3, 1976); Sandara, no. 8 (July 2, 1976), p. 1; Laisvoji Lietuva, XXX, no. 12/1234 (June 10, 1976), pp. 1-3, 10; Ibid., XXX, no. 17/1239 (August 26, 1976), p. 3; Ibid., XXX, no. 18/1240 (September 9, 1976), pp. 1, 3; Ibid., XXX, no. 19/1241 (September 23, 1976), pp. 1-2, 9-10; Dirva, LXI, no. 25 (June 17, 1976), pp. 3, 5, 7-8; Ibid., LXI, no. 30 (July 29, 1976), p. 5; Ibid., LXI, no. 31 (August 5, 1976), p. 10; Ibid., LXI, no. 32 (August 12, 1976), pp. 1, 3; Keleivis, no. 27 (July 6, 1976), pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 28 (July 13, 1976), pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 29 (July 20, 1976), pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 30 (July 27, 1976), pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 31 (August 17, 1976), pp. 2-3; Balys, p. 47.
23 ELTA Bulletin, nos. 189-208 (January 1975-August 1976), pp. 1-17 passim; Ibid., no. 194 (June 1975), pp. 9, 11-12; "Self-Immolations and National Protests in Lithuania," Liluanus, XVIII, no. 4 (Winter, 1972), pp. 58-72 passim; Ibid., no. 4 (Winter, 1974).
24 Juozas Audėnas, ed., Twenty Years Struggle for Freedom in Lithuania (New York: ELTA, 1963); "Lithuania: How Much Do We Know About Her?" (New York: ELTA, 1969).
25 "National and Religious Protest in Lithuania: From the Underground Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania," Lituanus, XX, no. 4 (Winter, 1974), pp. 62-68. See also "Christ Behind the Wire," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 5, 1973 {Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' League, n.d.); "Out of the Depths," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 6, 1974 {Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholics Priests' League); "Desecrated Shrines," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 7, 1974 (Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' League); "The Church Suffering," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 9 (Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholics Priests' League), "Struggle for Survival," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 10 (Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' League, 1975); "We Will Not," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 11 (Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' League, 1975); "Church in the Shadows," Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, no. 21 (Maspeth, N.Y.: The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' League, n.d.); Richard J. Krickus, "Faith and State in Lithuania," The Washington Post (January 11, 1976); and Commonweal (July 16, 1976); Fr. Casimir Pugevičius, "The Church in Lithuania," The Examiner, Bombay (luly 19, 1975).
26 Vytautas Alantas, Romas Kalanta (Cleveland, 1976); No Greater Love (Putnam: Immaculata Press, 1975); Respect My Rights: An Appeal of Antanas Terleckas to ].V. Andropoc (Chicago: Lithuanian World Community, 1976); Dr. J. Savasis, The War Against God in Lithuania (New York: Manyland Books, Inc., 1966).
27 Aidai no. 10/285-300 (December 1975), pp. 433-440; Ibid., no. 2/287-302 (February 1976), pp. 49-52, 60-63, 66-74; Ibid., no. 3/288-303 (March 1976), pp. 130-131; Ibid., no. 4/289-304 (April 1976), pp. 145-149, 164-171, 183-184; Laiškai Lietuviams, XVI, no. 8 (September 1965), pp. 254-288 passim; Ibid., XXVII, no. 2 (February 1976), pp. 37-41; J. Pamakštys, "Maskvos įkalinta Lietuva," Karys, no. 6 (June 1976), pp. 236-239; Lietuvių Dienos, XXVII, no. 1/160 (January 1976), pp. 18-19; Ibid., XXVII, no. 2/161 (February 1976), pp. 3, 18-20, 22; Ibid., XXVII, no. 5/164 (May 1976), pp. 3, 8, 17-19, 21; Ibid., XXVII, no. 6/165 (June 1976), pp. 3, 18-22; Pasaulio Lietuvis, no. 2/84 (March 1976), pp. 492-494; Ibid., no. 23/86 (May 1976), pp. 562, 584-588, 600; Svečias, no. 1 (1975), pp. 45-54 passim; Ibid., no. 4 (1975), pp. 69-78 passim: Ibid., no. 1 and 2 (1976), pp. 106-110.
28 The Violations of Human Rights in Soviet Occupied Lithuania: A Report for 1971 (Delran, N.J.: Lithuanian American Community, 1972); The Violations of Human Rights in Soviet Occupied Lithuania: A Report for  1973 (Glenside: Lithuanian American Council, 1974); The Violations of Human Rights in Soviet Occupied Lithuania: A Report for 1975 (Glenside: Lithuanian American Council, 1976).
29 Nepriklausoma Lietuva, no. 30-32 (August 11, 1976), pp. 2-3; Ibid., no. 33 (August 18, 1976), p. 4; Ibid., no. 34 (August 25/1976), pp. 1, 4; Ibid., no. 35 (September 1, 1976), p. 4; Ibid., no. 36 (September 8, 1976), p. 4; Tėviškės Žiburiai, no. 26/1377 (June 24, 1976), pp. 1-4.
30 Mūsų Pastogė, XXVII, no. 32/1436 (August 16, 1976), pp. 1, 5; Ibid., XXVII, no. 34 (August 30, 1976), pp. 1, 7; Tėviškės Aidai, XXI, no. 29/950 (July 24, 1976), pp. 1-2; Ibid., XXI, no. 34/955 (August 28, 1976), p. 4.
31 Mūsų Lietuva, XXVIII, no. 29/1460 (July 22, 1976), pp. 1-2, 4; Mūsų Lietuva: Suplemento Baltico, no. 3/24 (1976), pp. 1-6 passim; Ibid., 5/20 (October 23, 1975), pp. 1-8 passim; ibid., 1/22 (February 5, 1976), pp. 1-6 passim. See, for example: A Violacao dos Direitos Humanos na Lituania sob o Regime Sovietico, 1971-1974 (Sao Paulo: Assocao Dos sacerdotes lituanos no Brasil, et. al.}; A Igreja Agomzante Os Catolicos da Lituania Sob o Regime Sovietico. 1972 (Sao Paulo: Associacao dos sacerdotes lituanos do Brasil, 1972); V Pietų Lietuvių Kongresas (Sao Paulo: Paruošė P ALKO Spaudos ir Informacijos Komisija, 1973); Joseph Ehret, Os Balticos, Os Esauecidos (Sao Paulo: Comunidade Lituano Brasileira, 1973); Sousa Santos, 300 Aniversario da Invasao da Lituania par tropas Sovieticas (Brasilia: Mecanografia, 1971).
32 Laikas, XXVIII, no. 590 (July 16, 1976), p. 1; Joseph Ehret, Los Balticos Olvidados (Buenos Aires: Consejo de las Organizaciones y Prensa Lituanas de la Argentina, 1974); S.E.R. Monsenor Vincentas Brizgys, Las Condidones Regiliosas en Lituania Bajo la Ocupacion Ruso-Sovietica (Buenos Aires: "EI Tiempo, 1975).
33 Baltische Briefe, no. 3-4/329-330 (March-April 1976), pp. 1-20 passim; Ibid., no. 5/331 (May 1976), pp. 1-24 passim; Ibid., no. 6/332 (June 1976); Mitteilungen aus baltischen Leben, no. 1/93 (March-April 1976), pp. 1-30 passim; Baltisches Recht, no. 1 (December 1969).
34 Baltic Events, no. 2/43 (April 1974); Revista Baltica, no. 11 (1963); Baltic Review, no, 29 (June 1965).
35 UBA Information Service, "News Release No. 313," (June 13, 1976); Ibid., "News Release No. 314," (September 5, 1975); BATUN, 1966-1976 (New York: United Baltic Appeal, 1976); "If We Don't Do It, Who Will?" (New York: United Baltic Appeal, n.d.).