Volume 48, No.4 - Winter 2002
Editors of this issue: Violeta Kelertas
ISSN 0024-5089
Copyright © 2002 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.

Linguistic Snippets and Tidbits

Translated from the Lithuanian by Alfonsas Laučka


In almost all Indo-European languages adverbs are formed mostly from other parts of speech: from nouns, adjectives, verbs, and from participles. Their age and origin vary; the majority of them are ancient fossilized case forms.

Here are some Lithuanian adverbs, derived from various case forms:

        namo '(to go) home,' in the opinion of the author, derived possibly from the old allative form namopi;
'at home,' from *namieje, an old locative;
'yesterday,' from vakaras 'evening,' after the loss of the ending;
'tomorrow,' an old shortened locative;
'today,' from an old accusative form *šian dienan;
        aukštyn, žemyn
'upwards, downwards,' both developed from old case forms;
'the day after tomorrow,' from po ryto 'after the morrow';
'the day after the day after tomorrow*,' from 'after' + po 'after'+ryto 'morrow' (gen. sg.)—a phrase of three words, contracted into one.

The majority of the adverbs, as in many languages, are formed from adjectives:

'complicated—in a complicated manner,
'green—(dyed/painted) green'.

Adverbs, derived from adjectives, have degrees of comparison:

Aukštai—aukščiau—aukščiausiai     'high—higher—(the) highest', 
—skaniau—skaniausiai         'tastily—tastier—(the) tastiest'.

The superlative degree of the adverbs should not be confused with the superlative degree of the neuter gender of the adjectives:

(adjective), or


All linguists agree that, at the present time, there is no other Indo-European language with more diminutives than Lithuanian. Let us look at some examples:

        brolis 'brother': brolelis, broliukas, brolytis, brolužis, brolužėlis, brolutytis, broliukėlis, brolutaitis,...
     vaikas 'child, kid': vaikelis, vaikutis, vaikiukas, vaikeliukas, vaikytis, vaikužėlis,...
     gėlė 'flower': gėlelė, gėliukė, gėlytė,...

Theoretically, every Lithuanian noun can have at least two diminutive forms with the suffixes -elis, elė, -(i)utė, or the like. In practice, however, the situation is different. Many, even quite 'old,' nouns do not accept diminutive suffixes. For example:

        dangus 'heaven': dangelis*, dangutis*,...
     mintis 'thought': mintukė*, mintelė*, mintužė*,...
     atgaila 'repentance': atgailėlė*, atgailužė*, etc.

Probably, the language has no need for such forms.

Diminutive forms are exceptionally frequent in. folklore—in traditional songs, fairy-tales, legends, riddles, proverbs, etc. They are also widely used when speaking to infants and young children:

        duonelė, duonytė dim. of 'bread,' pienelis, pieniukas dim. of 'milk,' mamytė, mamutė 'Mummy,' tėvelis, tėtukas 'Daddy,' katytė 'kitty,' šunelis 'doggie', stalelis dim. of 'table,' etc.

Diminutive forms are also used figuratively:

        Jonas pasistatė namelį—tik 10 aukštų! 'John has built himself a small house—only ten stories (high)!'
     Petras nusipirko ūkelį—200 hektarų! 'Peter bought a small farm—only 200 hectares!
     Tai bent knygelė—2,500 puslapių! 'That's quite a booklet—2,500 pages!'

In some cases, the diminutive forms have lost their previous meaning and acquired a specialized one:

        vakarėlis originally dim. of vakaras 'evening,' now also 'a (village) youth gathering for dances';
     altorėlis orig. dim. of altorius 'altar,' now also an altar-shaped decoration carried in religious processions;
     tėvukas orig. 'daddy,' now also 'a grandpa';
     močiutė orig. 'mummy,' now also 'a grandma';
     bernelis/bernužėlis orig. 'a boy,' now also 'a boyfriend';
     mergelė/mergužėlė orig. 'a girl,' now also 'a lass'.

It has been observed that in Lithuanian diminutive forms have somehow entered the system of adjectives, at least of those frequently used:

        mažas 'small': mažutis, mažutė, mažiulis, mažiuliukas,...
     geras 'good': gerutis, gerutė,...
     gražus 'nice': gražutis, gražutė, gražulis, gražuliukas,...

However, a Lithuanian would hardly, even jokingly, say

        blogutis*, blogelis* > blogas 'bad'
     piktukas*, piktelis* > piktas 'angry,' etc.

Especially widespread is the use of the diminutives of given/Christian names:

Antanas 'Anthony': Antanėlis, Antaniukas,...
'Vincent': Vincelis, Vincukas, Vinculis,...
'Paul': Pauliukas, Paulelis, Pauliukėlis,...
'George': Jurgelis, Jurgiukas, Jurgutis,...
'Mary': Marytė, Marelė, Mariuką, Marikė,...
'Anne': Onutė, Onytė, Onelė, Onikė, and hundreds of other names.


Since the rise of comparative philology in the 1780s, the following viewpoint has been dominant: to understand the Indo-European parent language one must study the old classical languages (Sanskrit, Greek and Latin) and their extant written records.

The first to contradict this view was a 'rebellious' scholar at the famous University of Göttingen, Wolfgang P. Schmid. These were his three main arguments:

1. Two Baltic languages (Lithuanian and Latvian) are alive, while all other old Indo-European languages are long dead.

2. The Baltic languages (in particular, Lithuanian) are still very archaic.

3. Therefore, the Baltic languages should be at the center of Indo-European studies, and all other languages should be compared with them.

The discipline of Indo-European studies is very conservative. Its establishment—German, French, Italian, Danish, and Swedish scholars—is reluctant to change.

Technically Schmid's approach is quite feasible: Lithuanian phonology, grammar, word-formation and vocabulary would be the basis for the reconstruction of the Baltic parent language. Then this would be compared with other archaic languages. Such a 'Baltic' Indo-European parent language would not be any more problematic than the one reconstructed on the basis of Sanskrit, Greek or Latin.

It is difficult to predict whether 'the Trojan Horse' (or should we say 'the Baltic Horse') of Prof. Schmid will ever be accepted by Indo-European scholars.


Every language has lots of different set phrases and idioms. In Lithuanian there are many idioms containing words like vanduo 'water,' akys 'eyes,' lūpos 'lips,' burna 'mouth,' uodega 'tail,' nugara 'back,' rankos 'hands,' kojos 'feet,' etc.

However, perhaps the most colorful are the phrases involving the word velnias 'devil.' Maybe that is the reason why in Lithuanian velnias is not a horrifying image of Satan or some other evil spirit. The word is very old; it is related to vėlė 'soul,' and velionis 'the deceased,' etc.

In Lithuanian folklore, and in particular in fairy tales, velnias is a simpleton and a pitiful figure, often outwitted by a clever peasant or soldier.

This list comprises over 150 phrases containing the word devil (the phrases in quotes are literal translations).

        1. be velnio 'without the devil,' a) very much, b) just the thing;
        2. eik po velniais, po (šimto) velnių 'go after/to a (hundred) devils,' go to the devil/deuce;
        3. gyvas velnias 'a live devil,' very much, many, the devil and all;
        4. į velnią 'into the devil,' very (derogatory);
        5. į velnią padirbti 'to do into the devil,' to bring to naught;
        6. į velnio dienas dėti 'to put into devil's days,' to curse (somebody);
        7. į velnius išeiti 'to go into devils,' to become immoral;
        8. į velnio miltus (iš)dėti/išdirbti 'to put/make into devil's flour,' to curse (somebody);
        9. iš velnio 'from the devil,' very, greatly;
        10. kad tave/jį (devyni) velniai (kur); kad (tave/jį) šimtas velnių rautų 'may nine/a hundred devils tear you/him (up, off),' the deuce take you;
        11. kaip iš velnio 'like from the devil,' a) energetically, b) quickly;
        12. kaip iš velnio rago 'like from the devil's horn,' a) without a hitch, b) well, fine;
        13. kaip šimtas velnių 'like a hundred devils,' very quickly;
        14. kaip šimto velnių apsėstas 'as if obsessed by a hundred devils,' loudly;
        15. kur velnias nunešė 'where the devil took him,' nobody/devil knows where;
        16. kokio velnio 'what the devil,' what the hell [angrily];
        17. kokį/kurį velnią 'what sort of devil,' what the hell [angrily];
        18. kurio velnio, kurių/kokių velnių 'of what devil(s),' why the devil...;
        19. ma(t) tave/jį/... velniai let the devils see you/him,' deuce take it;
        20. nei Dievui šakės, nei velniui kačerga; nei Dievui žvakė, nei velniui šakė 'neither a pitchfork for God nor a poker for the devil; neither a candle for pitchfork for                 the devil,' neither fish nor fowl, good for nothing; God nor a pitchfork for the devil,' neither fish nor fowl, good for nothing;   
        21. nė/nei velnio 'no devil,' a) nothing at all, b) completely, c) [a curse];
        22. nė velniams/velniui 'not for the devil(s)' neither this nor that, worth nothing;
        23. nė/nei velnias, nė/nei gegutė 'neither a cuckoo nor a devil,' neither this nor that, poor, worth nothing;
        24. nė velniui neskanus 'tasty neither for the devil,' worth nothing;
        25. nuo (paties/vieno) velnio 'from the (very/one) devil,' a) very, b) said of someone boisterous or violent;
        26. patį velnią 'the real devil,' very much;
        27. per velnią 'through the devil,' a) very, b) much, enough;
        28. po velniais 'to the devils,' [a curse];
        29. po velnio/velniui/velnių 'to the devil(s),' to hell with it, damn! [a curse];
        30. po velniais/velnių išeiti, nueiti 'to go to the devils,' to disappear, to vanish;
        31. po (šimts) velnių 'to the (hundred) devils,' confound it! [a curse];
        32. po velniu gimęs 'born of the devil,' mad, nasty;
        33. prie velnio išeiti 'to go to the devil,' to get lost;
        34. pupų velnias 'the devil of the beans,' a scarecrow;
        35. pusė velnio 'half the devil'; a) quite good, b) rather crazy, c) quite well;
        36. pusiau su velniu 'half with the devil'; quite well;
        37. su pačiu velniu 'with the devil himself,' a) very, b) vigorously;
        38. su puse velnio 'with half of the devil,' quite well;
        39. su velniu iš/ant pusės 'at halves with the devil,' poorly, below/under par;
        40. su velniais 'with the devils,' vigorously;
        41. su velniu 'with the devil,' a) mad, b) intensely;
        42. su velniu pasibėgusi/pasiburškusi 'pregnant by the devil,' very wild, licentious;
        43. suk (ką) velnias/velniai 'let the devil(s) turn (it),' no worry, skip it;
        44. šimtas velnių (raugintų) 'a hundred (soured) devils,' damn!;
        45. tegu (ką) velniai 'let the devils,' [express dissatisfaction];
        46. trauk (ką) velniai 'let the devils pull (it),' deuce take (it);
        47. velnio akį 'the devil's eye,' [to get] nothing;
        48. velnias ant velnio 'the devil on the devil,' a) very bad, b) [a curse];
        49. velnio ašara/ašaros 'the devil's tear(s),' vodka;
        50. velniu apsibėgęs/pasiburškęs 'tossed around by the devil,' full of piss and vinegar, very wild (male);
        51. velniai darosi/pasidarė 'the devils are befalling/have befallen,' [about an intensive activity];
        52. velnio darželis 'the devil's flower garden,' nettles;
        53. velnias uždėjo uodegą 'the devil has put his tail on it' [when sb. does not see quite obvious things];
        54. velnius dirbti /išdirbti /padirbti /pri(si)dirbti /sudirbti /išdarinėti /pridaryti 'to do/make devils,' to do evil things;
        55. velnių duoti 'to give devils,' to scold, to curse;
        56. velniui dūšią atiduoti 'to give one's soul to the devil,' to die;
        57. velniais (iš)eiti 'to go to devils,' to behave badly, impishly;
        58. (stačių) velnių pri(si)ėdęs 'having swallowed (upright) devils,' smart, sly;
        59. velnių gauti 'to receive devils,' to be given a dressing-down;
        60. velnią galvoti/grįsti 'to think the devil,' to be bent on something bad;
        61. velnius gaudyti 'to catch devils,' a) to behave indecently, b) to loiter;
        62. velnias griebtų 'let the devil catch it,' blow me/it!;
        63. velnias negriebs/neims (savo vaiko) 'the devil will not take (harm his child),' nothing bad will happen to somebody;
        64. velnio grietinė 'the devil's sour cream,' vodka;
        65. velnias paėmė 'the devil has taken,' a) (sb.) has gone mad, b) has died;
        66. velnių ieškoti 'to look for devils,' to find fault with;
        67. velnio paimtas 'taken by the devil,' a) wrong, b) not serious;
        68. velnio išpera 'the spawn of the devil,' a sly, deceitful person;
        69. velniai nujojo 'the devils have ridden (on it),' a) (it) has gone to the dogs, b) (it) has disappeared;
        70. velnias/velniai juokiasi 'the devil(s) is/are laughing,' a) bad, b) [about something done badly];
        71. velnias pakalėdos 'the devil will go begging,' (it) will suffer, perish;
        72. velnių kaustytas 'shod by the devils,' resourceful, sly;
        73. velnio kėdė 'the devil's chair,' double-trunk tree;
        74. velnių keliais eiti, velnio keliu išeiti 'to go the way(s) of the devil(s),' to get out of hand, to be on the loose;
        75. velnius (su)kelti 'to raise the devils,' to express dissatisfaction;
        76. velnias kojose 'the devil in the legs,' danger is imminent;
        77. velnias kratinį krato 'the devil is making a mess,' (one's hair) is getting gray;
        78. velnius krauti, velniais apkrauti 'to heap devils on', to curse;
        79. velnius (pa)krėsti, velnių pri(si)krėsti 'to shake devils,' to behave foolishly;
        80. velnio kulka 'the devil's bullet,' a thunderbolt,
        81. velniais apsikūlęs 'used to devils,' wicked, spoiled;
        82. velnio lašai 'devil's drops,' vodka;
        83. velnių paleidimas letting of devils,' midnight;
        84. velnių lendrynas 'the devil's reeds,' a multitude;
        85. velnias/velniai nematė 'the devil(s) have not seen (it),' it's O.K., let it be;
        86. velnio nagas 'the devil's nail,' a thunderstone,
        87. velnio namai 'the devil's house,' tavern, alehouse;
        88. velnias, ne gegutė '(it is) a devil, not a cuckoo,' a) [said when things go wrong], b) a bad man;
        89. velnias ne(šioj)a (už ragų) 'the devil is carrying by the horns,' [about somebody going where one should not];
        90. velnias atnešė 'the devil has brought,' [about an unpleasant person with whom one must communicate];
        91. velnias išnešė 'the devil took away,' disappeared, left;
        92. velnais nunešė (ant uodegos) 'the devil carried away (on its tail),' a) nobody knows where (it) disappeared, b) (it) ceased to exist;
        93. velnias parnešė 'the devil brought,' (sb.) came back, dragged one's heels;
        94. velnias užnešė 'the devil lifted,' (it) rose high;
        95. velniu apsinešęs 'coated by the devil,' bad;
        96. velnio neštas (ir pamestas) 'by the devil carried (and lost),' bad, cunning;
        97. velnių pagautinis 'the time when the devils can catch one,' after midnight;
        98. velnio pakartuvė 'the devil's rope', somebody who fidgets;
        99. velnio paklodas 'the lining of the devil,' braggart, a wind bag;
        100. velnio pamazga 'devil's dishwater,' [calling somebody names];
        101. velnio pamazgos 'the devil's wash/slop', vodka;
        102. velnio pamušalas 'the devil's lining', a light-minded, immature person;
        103. velnio pantis 'the devil's hobble,' a sly man;
        104. velnio/velnių patinas 'the devil's/devils' mate/male,' a bad man;
        105. velnio pautai 'the devil's testicles,' jimson weed (Datura stramonium);
     106. velnio išperėtas 'hatched/bred by the devil,' sly, cunning;
        107. velnio pirštas 'the devil's finger,' thunderbolt;
        108. velnio pluta 'the devil's crust,' somebody who is worthless, no good;
        109. velnio poteriai 'the devil's prayers,' playing cards;
        110. velnius pūrais/puspūriais seikėti 'to measure devils by pūras (ca. 72 ltr.)/ half pūras,' to use foul language;
        111. velnių puspūrė 'a halt pūras of devils,' [a curse];
        112. velnių pripūtęs 'blown, inflated with devils,' sly, tricky;
        113. velnio ragai 'the horns of the devil,' a tool for making sheaves of straw;
        114. velnio raistas 'devil's fen,' disorder;
        115. velnias rauna/renka/parinko/parovė 'the devil uproots /gathers/gleans,' [said when something bad happens];
        116. (stačių) velnių pri(si)rijęs, velnią prarijęs 'having swallowed (upright) devils, having swallowed a devil,' agile, cunning;
        117. velnių prisirinkti 'to gather devils,' to become sly;
        118. velnio sąvalka 'the devil's dumpsite,' [a curse];
        119. velnio sėkla 'the devil's seed,' a rogue;
        120. velnio prisėstas 'sat upon by the devil,' angry;
        121. velnio skystimas 'devil fluid,' vodka;
        122. velnias neskobs 'the devil won't spoon,' nothing will happen;
        123. velnio skūra 'the devil's hide,' good-for-nothing [female];
        124. velnio išspirtas iš kelmelio 'kicked out from a stump by the devil,' treacherous, sly;
        125. velnio pristotas 'annoyed by the devil,' angry;
        126. velnio subinė 'devil's ass', a) a vague, indefinite place, b) [a curse];
        127. velnias pasuko 'the devil turned', [subject was deceived, tricked, fooled];
        128. velnias pašienavo 'the devil has made hay,' [said about someone who disappeared, perished, etc.];
        129. velnio šūdas 'devil's shit,' a) very bad, b) not worth anything, c) [a curse];
        130. velnio šūdo 'of the devil's shit,' nothing;
        131. velnių pri(si)šveitęs 'having swallowed devils', sly, evil;
        132. velnius (iš)taisyti 'to caper devils', to behave improperly;
        133. velnių takais eiti 'to go by the paths of the devils', to get out of hand;
        134. velnias /velniai trauktų 'should the devil(s) pull,' [said when something bad happens];
        135. velnio triedalas 'the devil's shif, dry rot (Merulius lacrymans);
     136. velnio tuzinas 'devil's dozen,' thirteen, baker's dozen;
        137. velnio vabalas 'devil's bug', a poor creature;
        138. velnio vaikas 'the devil's child', a light-minded, immature person;
        139. velnius vaikyti 'to chase devils,' to find fault;
        140. velniu pasivaikiusi 'chased by the devil,' worthless, common [fem.];
        141. velnio vardu nueiti 'to depart on behalf of the devil,' to disappear, to perish;
        142. velnius varinėti/varyti 'to drive the devils,' to quarrel, to swear;
        143. velnią/velnius išvaryti (pro pakaušį) 'to drive the devil(s) (through the back of the head,' to teach subject a lesson, to educate;
        144. velnias pavažiuos karietą 'the devil will drive the coach,' one will have to die;
        145. velnių velniais 'devils by devils,' a) very quickly, dashing, b) fully, entirely, c) badly;
        146. velnius versti, velniais verstis 'to somersault devils,' to rage, to rampage;
        147. velnio veseilia 'the devil's wedding,' a quarrel, a brawl;
        148. velnio veseli(j)a 'the devil's wedding,' a) a dust cloud, b) blizzard;
        149. velnio vėtyklė 'the devil's winnower,' a light-minded, immature person;
        150. velnius ženyti 'to marry devils,' to swear, to quarrel;
        151. velnias/velniai žino 'the devil(s) know(s),' nobody knows where, what, when,...;
        152. velnias žino kiek 'the devil knows how much,' much, many.***


Idiomatic expressions make the language richer and more vivid. For instance, if one wants to say that somebody is wealthy, one can say:

        Jonas turi daug pinigų 'John has a lot of money,'
     Jonas yra labai turtingas 'John is very rich,' or
     Jonas turi pinigų kaip šieno lit. 'John has money like hay,' heaps of money, i.e., he is made of money.

In the preceding chapter, idiomatic phrases comprising the word velnias were presented, while this chapter contains various phrases widely used throughout Lithuania (the phrases in quotes are literal translations).

        1. akis (iš)draskyti 'to tear out subjects eyes,' to attack subject impudently, to reproach subject;
        2. kaip akis išdegęs 'with one's eyes burned, burnt,' in a great hurry;
        3. akys išsprogo/išlindo ant kaktos 'the eyes rolled out on the forehead,' greatly astonished, not knowing what to say;
        4. akis pražiūrėti 'to make subjects eyes achy,' to wait for something/sombody anxiously a long time in vain;
        5. akis užsipilti 'to fill one's eyes' to drink heavily, too much;
        6. ant dantų nešioti 'to carry on the teeth,' to make fun of;
        7. ant liežuvio valkioti 'to draw/drag on the tongue,' to spread rumors, to slander, to libel;
        8. ant peilių eiti 'to go on knives,' to quarrel, to fight;
        9. ant šakės/šakių kelti 'to lift on fork(s),' to praise subject exceedingly;
        10. ant vienos kojos šokti 'to hop on one foot,' to jump for joy;
        11. ašarų pakalnė/klonis 'the vale of tears,' this life;
        12. autus padžiauti 'to dry foot wrappings,' to kick the bucket;
        13. baigtas kriukis 'the crook is made/finished,' it is all over;
        14. bala nematė 'the swamp hasn't seen it,' it does not matter, it is not important;
        15. bambą į bambą trinti 'to rub navel against navel,' to dance hugging each other tightly;
        16. (jam) baslį/kuolą/mietą gali ant galvos tašyti 'you can sharpen a pole on (his) head,' [said about a very insensitive or awkward person]; thick-skinned;
        17. be galo/krašto 'without any end/edge,' very much;
        18. beržinė košė 'birch porridge,' beating with (birch) twigs or a whip as a punishment;
        19. bijai vilko, neik į mišką 'if you are afraid of a wolf, don't go into the forest,' don't take chances, don't run a risk;
        20. kaip inkstas taukuose 'like a kidney in the fat,' provided with everything, leading a carefree life;
        21. (jau jo/jos) dainelė sudainuota 'his/her song has (already) been sung,' everything is over with him/her;
        22. dangus su žeme maišosi 'heaven and earth are mixed up,' a snowstorm, a blizzard;
        23. dantį galąsti 'to sharpen the tooth,' to bear a grudge against subject;
        24. dantis ant lentynos padėti 'to put one's teeth on the shelf,' to have nothing to eat;
        25. daug vandens į marias nutekėjo 'a lot of water has flowed to the seas,' much time has passed;
        26. dėti į akį 'to put into the eye,' to sleep very soundly;
        27. devynios galybės 'nine powers,' a lot, a great number;
        28. devintas vanduo nuo kisieliaus 'the ninth water from the washbrew,' a cousin seven times removed;
        29. dovanotam arkliui į dantis nežiūri 'you don't look a gift horse in the teeth,' you don't look a gift horse in the mouth;
        30. durimis nešinas 'carrying the door,' (to leave) in a great hurry;
        31. eiti šunų šukuoti 'to go comb the dogs,' to be worth nothing, to not find a job;
        32. eiti šunims šėko/šieno pjauti 'to go mow/make hay for the dogs,' see phrase 31. Eiti šunų šukuoti;
33. galvomis eiti 'to walk on heads,' to romp, to frolic;
        34. girtas kaip dūmelis/dūmas 'drunk as a (little) smoke,' blind drunk;
        35. gyva bala 'a live swamp,' very much, lots of;
        36. į akis miglą pūsti 'to blow mist into the eyes', to tell lies;
        37. į dulkes sutrinti 'to grind into dust,' to blame, to chastise;
        38. į kuodus įsikibti 'to grip on the thatches of hair,' to fight;
        39. į šuns dienas išdėti 'to put into dog's days,' to blame, to censure;
        40. į visus keturis vėjus paleisti 'to let/toss into (all) four winds,' to drive subject out of one's home;
        41. įleisti ožį į daržą 'to let the goat into the garden,' to let subject / something dangerous into one's home, to set the fox among the barns;
        42. ir ožka sveika, ir vilkas sotus 'the goat is safe, and the wolf is full,' to have one's cake and eat it too;
        43. ir vėtytas, ir mėtytas 'both tossed and pitched,' not born yesterday, experienced;
        44. iš adatos vežimą priskaldyti 'to chop a cartful from a needle,' to exaggerate, to make a mountain out of a molehill;
        45. iš klumpių iškristi (iš)virsti 'to tip out of one's clogs,' to fall ill, to grow weak suddenly, to die laughing;
        46. iš po šuns ištrauktas 'drawn out from under the dog,' crumpled, totally wrinkled;
        47. is šiaudo/šapo vežimą priskaldyti 'to chop a cartful from a straw', see phrase 44: iš adatos vežimą priskaldyti;
     48. iš vieno (to paties) molio krėstas 'thrown from one (and the same) clay,' made from the same material, cast from the same mold, cut from the same cloth.
        49. iškaršti kailį 'to card somebody's skin,' to beat, thrash one's hide.
        50. išvirsti iš kojų 'to fall off one's feet,' to get very tipsy;
        51. jam/jai ne viskas namie 'not everything is home for him/her,' he/she is not all there;
        52. jam/jai trūksta vieno šulo 'he/she is missing a post,' has a screw loose;
        53. kai akmuo sužaliuos 'when the stone sprouts grass,' never;
        54. kailį/ kuprą/ nugarą/ skudurus/ šonus vanoti/ austi/ dirbti/ dirti/ dyžti/ engti/ karšti/ lyginti/ lupti/ skalbti/ skusti/ lakuoti 'to cudgel/ weave/ work/ pluck/ oppress/ card/ level/ peel/ wash/ shave/ lacquer somebody's skin/ hump/ back/ rags/ sides/ to beat, to batter;
        55. kaimo Jurgis 'a village George,' a naive person; a country bumpkin;
        56. kaip baslį/ kurbę/ mietą prarijęs 'as if having swallowed a pole,' amazed, startled;
        57. (naudos) kaip iš pernykščio sniego '(as useful) as last year's snow,' quite useless;
        58. kaip kirviu nukirsta 'as if cut by an axe,' categorically said, expressed;
        59. kaip Sekminių karvė 'like a Whitsun cow,' dressed up (on Whitsun herders decorate the horns of their cows with garlands);
        60. kaip žemę pardavęs 'as if having sold one's land,' very sad;
        61. kurčias kaip kelmas 'deaf as a stump,' as deaf as a post;
        62. liežuvį laužyti 'to break the tongue', to speak with difficulty (usually a foreign langauge);
        63. liežuviu malti 'to grind with one's tongue,' wag one's tongue, to chat(ter);
        64. (mano) širdis kulnuose '(my) heart is in my heels,' (I'm) extremely frightened, my heart was in my throat/ stomach;
        65. molio Motiejus 'clay Timothy,' uneducated, tactless, uncultured;
        66. ne iš kelmo spirtas 'not kicked out of a stump', clever, smart;
        67. nė penkių nesuskaito 'unable to count to five,' illiterate, foolish;
        68. nė puse burnos 'not by half a mouth,' silent, keeping a secret;
        69. nertis iš kailio 'to creep out of one's skin,' to persevere;
        70. nors gyvas į žemą lįsk 'as if sinking into the ground alive,' I wish the earth/floor would open beneath my feet;
        71. ožio balsu 'in a goat's voice,' (to shout, to sing) off-key;
        72. paleisti raudoną gaidį 'to let the red cock loose,' to set on fire;
        73. pigiau grybų '(as cheap as mushrooms,' dirt cheap;
        74. pilvas dvylika muša 'the stomach strikes twelve,' very hungry;
        75. pinigų kaip šieno 'money like hay,' money to burn;
        76. raičiotis iš juoko 'to rock with laughter,' to split one's sides laughing, to collapse with laughter;
        77. saulės brolis 'the sun's brother,' a bum, a loafer;
        78. sočiai prisikirsti 'to cut to the full,' to have one's fill;
        79. spjaudyti ir gaudyti 'to spit and to catch,' to act like a bum, to laze around;
        80. stiprus kaip jautis 'as strong as an ox,' as strong as a horse;
        81. strėnas nuleisti 'to lower the loins,' to beat, to defeat subject;
        82. su perkūnais sumaišyti 'to mix up with the thunders,' to berate, to scold;
        83. suk bala/ velnias/ perkūnas 'let the swamp/ devil/ thunder turn,' it doesn't matter;
        84. suriesti į ožio ragą 'to twist into a goat's horn,' to win, to overcome;
        85. šaukštai po pietų 'the spoons are after dinner,' everything is all over, it is too late;
        86. širdis plyšta 'the heart breaks/ bursts,' it is a great pity;
        87. šonkaulius suskaityti 'to count the ribs,' to batter, to cudgel;
        88. tarp kūjo ir priekalo 'between the hammer and the anvil,' between a rock and a hard place;
        89. tik gulbės pieno trūksta 'only swan's milk is missing,' everything is in abundance, nothing is missing;
        90. tyla gera byla 'silence is a great talk,' no wisdom like silence, silence is golden;
        91. ubago lazda 'beggar's staff,' a beggar, a poor man;
        92. ūsus nusvilti 'to singe one's moustache,' to suffer, to be disappointed;
        93. užversti kojas 'to turn one's legs up,' to kick the bucket;
        94. valandos suskaitytos 'the hours are counted,' subject's life is coming to an end;
        95. varnas gaudyti 'to catch crows,' to be lazy, to loiter;
        96. vėjais eiti 'to go with the winds,' do nothing, to go down the tubes;
        97. velnio gėrimas 'the devil's drink,' alcohol;
        98. vienos sijos/ balkio trūksta 'one beam is missing,' (to be) out of one's senses;
        99. viskas nuėjo šuniui ant uodegos 'everything went off on the dog's tail,' everything fell flat, all plans went awry, all gone to pot;
        100. žiemą vasarą 'in winter and in summer", all the time, permanently.


*   See first part in Lituanus, vol. 48, no. 3, (2002) pp. 52-80.
** In greater detail, see Antanas Klimas, "Professor Wolfgang P. Schmid and his Trojan Horse," Lituanus, vol. 34, no. 4, (1998) pp. 23-30.
***All these phrases are taken from the academic Lietuvių kalbos žodynas (Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language, 20 volumes).